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AP Euro History Ch15

1. witches witchcraft was activities of the devil
2. Thirty Years War "religious wars" (militant catholicism and militant calvinism)
3. Gustavus Adolphus King of Sweden, responsible for reviving Sweden and making it into a great Baltic power
4. Peace of Westphalia ensured that all german states, including the Calinists ones, were free to determine their own religion
5. conscript standing armies notable for the flexibility of its tactics
6. absolutism meant that the sovereign power or ultimate authority in the state rested in the hands of a king who claim to rule by divine right.
7. Bishop Jacques Bossuet one of the chief theorists of divine-right monarchy in the 16th century, french theologian and court preacher
8. "Divine right" God established kings and through them reigned over all peoples of the world.
9. Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin Mazarin is Richelieu's trained successor who attempted to carry on Richelieu's policies until his death in 1661
10. The Fronde the French were interested in overthrowing Mazarin for their own purposes; to secure their positions and increase their own power
11. Louis XIV consciously fostered the myth of himself as the Sun King, the source of all light for his people.
12. Edict of Fontainebleau the destruction of Huguenot churches and the closing of protestant schools
13. Versailles residence of the king, a reception hall for state affairs, an office building for the members of the kings government, and the home of thousands of royal officials and aristocratic courtiers
14. Jean-Baptiste Colbert sought to increase the wealth and power of France through general adherence mercantilism, which stressed government regulation of economic activities to benefit the state.
15. Louis XIV's wars both the increase in royal power that Louis persued and his desire for military glory led the king to wage war
16. Peace of Ultrecht ended the wars of Louis XIV
17.Brandenburg-Prussia gained territories because of the Peace of Ultrecht
18. Frederick William the great Elector laid the foundation for the Prussian state
19. the Hohemzollerns helped with the evolution of Brandenburg into a powerful state
20. Treaty of Karlowitz Austria took control of Hungary
21. the Romanovs the new tsar, beginning a new dynasty
22. Russian serfdom An abundance of land and a shortage of peasants made serfdom desirable to the land owners
23. the Orthodox church merchant and peasant revolts as well as a schism in the russian Orthodox church created very unsettled conditions
24. Peter the Great one of his first priorities was the reorganization of the army and the creation of a navy
25. Saint Petersburg Peter had begun to construct a new cit, his window on the west and a symbol that Russia was looking westward to Europe
26. Great Northern War Danish military losses led to a constitutional crisis in which a meeting of Denmark's Estates brought to pass a bloodless revolution in 1660
27. the Ottoman Empire tried to complete their conquest of the Balkans, where they had been established since the 14th century
28. Poland's Sejm or Polish diet, was a 2 chamber assembly in which landowners completely dominated the few townspeople and lawyers who where also members
29. the house of Orange occupied the stadholderate in the most of the seven provinces and favored the development of a centralized government with themselves as the hereditary monarchs
30. Amsterdam had replaced Antwerp as the financial capital of Europe
31. the Stuarts line of rulers that was inaugurated with the accession to the throne of Elizabeth's cousin, King James VI of scotland
32. Puritans Protestants in the anglican church inspired by Calvinist theology
33. English civil war most important to parliaments success was the creation of the New Model Army, which was composed primarily of more extreme Puritans known as the independents, who believed they were doing battle for the lord
34. Oliver Cromwell One of the groups leaders (New Model Army)
35. Levellers women's equality with men, and government programs to care for the poor
36. the Restoration the necessity for its consent to taxation was excepted , and arbitrary courts were still abolished
37. Test Act specifying that only anglicans could hold military and civil offices
38. James II named Catholics to high positions in the government, army, navy, and universities
39. Glorious Revolution With almost no bloodshed, England embarked on a glorious revolution, not over the issue of whether they would be a monarchy but rather over who would be the monarch
40. Thomas Hobbes claimed that in the state of nature, before society was organized, human life was "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short"
41. John Locke believed that humans lived then in a state of equality and freedom rather than a state of war
42. Bill of Rights affirmed Parliaments right to make laws and levy taxes and made it possible for kings to oppose to do without Parliament by stipulating that standing armies could only be raised with the consent of Parliament
43. Mannerism and El Greco spread to italy and other parts of Europe and perhaps reached its apogee in El Greco
44. Bernini and Gentileschi completed the Saint Peters basilica and designed the vast colonnade enclosing the piazza in the front of it: most famous for Judith beheading holofernes
45. Baroque an artistic movement of the sixteenth century in Europe that used dramatic effects to arouse the emotions and reflected the search for power
46. French Classicism a rather austere version of the high renaissance style
47. Rembrandt van Rijn the finest product of the golden age of Dutch Painting
48. William Shakespeare a "complete man of the theater"
49. Lope de Vega an incredibly prolific writer
50. Racine and Moliere focused on conflicts such as between love and honor or inclination or duties:wrote, produced and acted in a series of comedies
Created by: ambrecooper