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Neroanatomy

QuestionAnswer
Medulla, what's its location? Most caudal subdivision of the brainstem. Divided into Rostral and Caudal.
Medullary Pyramids On ventral surface of the medulla, contains the tracts of the corticospinal and corticobulbar systems
What Cranial nerves run through the Medulla CN IX - XII
What artery provides blood supply to the medulla? Vertebral aretery
What other structures are found in the rostral medula Contains the inferior olives and medullary pyramids
What order nuclei for the somatic sensory pathways are located in the medula? Second order
The second order nuclei of what system that interprets pain and temp to the face is located in the caudal medula? Name that nuclei Spinal Trigeminal System; Spinal nucleus of the trigeminal complex
Anterior Cerebral Artery Supplies blood to the medial aspect of the cerebral hemispheres (frontal and parietal lobes). Runs through the lateral fissure.
Middle Cerebral Artery Supplies blood to the lateral surface of the frontal and parietal lobes and the superior temporal lobe
What major artery do the middle and anterior cerebral arteries branch from? Internal carotid
What major artery does the posterior cerebral artery branch from? Vertebral or basilar arteries
Posterior Cerebral Artery Supplies blood to the occipital lobes
Anterior choroidal aretery Supplies the choiroid plexus of the lateral ventricles. Also supplies the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior thalamus, and part of the globus plallidus.
Posterior communicating artery Connects the middle cerebral artery and the posterior cerebral artery
Anterior communicating artery Connects the two divisional tracts of the anterior cerebral artery (the anterior cerebral artery remember supplies the medial aspect of the cerebral hemispheres therefore needs to branch into 2 tracts)
Anterior Spinal Artery Supplies the anterior 2/3rds of the spinal cord, supplying the spinothalamic tract and the corticospinal tract.
Posterior Spinal Artery Supplies the posterior 1/4rd of the spinal cord and supplies the dorsal horn and the dorsal columns
Pons Middle aspect of the brainstem, superior to the medulla.
What vetricle is associated with the Pons? Fourth
Which cranial nerves are located in the Pons? CN V-VII
Which somatic sensory system's decussation point is located in the Pons? The second order nuclei of the trigeminal principal mechonosensory system decussate at the pons
What are the two somatic sensory systems associated with the pons? Trigeminal principal mechanosensory system and the spinal trigeminal system
What structures are located in the pons that allow communication with the cerebellum? superior, middle, inferior peduncles
Superior cerbellar peduncle Carries information from the cerebellum to the midbrain and thalamus; Error message to the brain fixing the discrepancy between what the brain wants to do and what the body is doing.
Middle cerebellar peduncle Axons from the pons to the cerebellum. Receiving information from the cerebral motor cortex. (what the brain wants to do)
Inferior cerebellar peduncle receiving proprioception information from the spinocerebellar system (which makes up the inferior peduncle) (what the body is doing)
Cerebral Peduncle either of two large bundles of nerve fibers passing from the pons forward and outward to form the main connection between the cerebral hemispheres and the spinal cord
Cerebullum Attached to the brainstem at the level of the pons. Crucial role in control of movement.
Midbrain Superior to the pons (part of brainstem).
What cranial nerves are located in the midbrain? CNII-IV
What major structures are found in the midbrain? Cerebral aqueduct, superior and inferior colliculi, pineal gland, and cerebral peduncles
Superoir colliculi funtion Occulomotor and postural adjustments. Orientation to visual and other stimuli. Located on the dorsal midbrain
Inferior Colliculi funtion Ascending auditory pathwaysLocated on the dorsal midbrain
What artery supplies blood to the Pons? Basilar artery
What artery supplies blood to the midbrain? Posterior cerebral artery
Diencephalon Makes up the forebrain along with the cerebral hemispheres. Contains the epithalamus, thalamus, and hypothalamus
Which ventricle is associated with the diencephalon/thalamus? Third Ventricle
Thalamus Relays information going into the cortex from other parts of the brain/body. Where the third order nuclei for most tracts are located.
Hypothalamus Involved in the control of homeostasis and reproductive function
Cerebral Hemispheres Make up the forebrain along with the diencephalon. Seperated by the longitudinal fissure. Covered by the cerebral cortex. Surface composed of many gyri and sulci. Divided into four lobes.
Four lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital
What sulcus divides the frontal and parietal lobes of the cerebral hemispheres? Central sulcus
What connects the cerebral hemispheres Corpus Callosum
What are the three fiber bundles associated with the cerebral hemispheres? Corpus Callosum, Fornix, and Anterior commissure
Anterior Commissure smaller bundle of axons that are involved in connecting the rt and left hemispheres of the cerebrum
Fornix Connects the hippocamus and thalamus
Calcarine sulcus Defines the location of the primary visual cortex. It seperates the Cuneus "wedge" which controls the inferior portion of the VF, and the lingual "tongue" which controls the upper portion of the VF
Basal Ganglia Influence descending motor pathways by modulating thalamic interactions with the frontal lobe. Divided into three main structures: caudate, putamen, and the globus pallidus
Struiatum The collective name for the caudate and putamen
Input to the basal ganglia are genrated by which two structures? Cerebral cortex and substantia nigra
Output from the basal ganglia targets what structures? Thalamus and superior colliculus
Hippocampus Lies in the "floor" of the lateral ventricle. Medial aspect of the temporal lobe. It is associated with short term memory.
Olfactory Bulb Swellings at the anterior ends of the olfactory tacts
Olfactopry Tracts Receive input from the olfactory nerve rootlets. The tracts run along the inferior surface of the frontal lobe near the midline.
Dorsal Thalamus Anterior portion of the diencephalon. Contains the medial geniculate nucleus (Concerned with audition) and the lateral geniculate nucleus (concerned with vision)
Lateral Geniculate Nucleus Lies next to the superior colliculi of the midbrain.
Lateral Ventricles Also known as the first and second ventricles. Contain the largest amount of CSF. Located in the cerebral hemispheres. Connected to the third ventricle via the interventricular foramen.
Interventricular foramen Conncets the lateral ventricles with the third ventricle
Cerebral Aqueduct Located in the midbrain. Connects the third and fourth ventricles.
Fourth Ventricle Located in the pons. Allows CSF to enter into the subarachnoid space.
Frontal Lobe Area anterior to the central sulcus
Central sulcus Divides the frontal and parietal lobes
Lateral Fissure (AKA Sylvian Fissure) Seperates frontal lobe from the temporal lobe
Precentral Gyrus Motor cortex
Postcentral Gyrus Somatic sensory cortex
Broca's Area Posterior third of the inferior frontal gyrus, on the left side. Concerned with the production (formation) of language.
Middle frontal lobe Anterior to the precentral gyrus; control of voluntary eye movements
Temporal Lobe Located inferiorly to the frontal lobe on each side, divided by the lateral fissure.
Superior Temporal Gyrus Involved in audition
Middle temporal gyrus Central part contains Wernicke's area
Wernicke's Area Involved in the understanding of language
Parietal Lobe Lies posterior to the central sulcus and superior to the lateral fissue
Occipital lobe Most posterior of the lobes, posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus. Named the visual cortex. Damage to this region can cause blindness.
Parieto-occipital sulcus Divides the parietal lobe and the occipital lobe
Insula Hidden beneath the frontal and temporal lobes neurons within this cortex are associated with visceral and autonomic function, and taste perception
Cingulated Sulcus Extends across the medial surface of the frontal and parietal lobes. Encircle the corpus callosum and diencephalon. (Assoc with the limbic system)
Cingulated Gyrus Gyrus below cingulated sulcus, wraps around the corpus callosum and diencephalon. (Assoc with the Limbic system)
Pineal gland Situated between the two superior colliculi of the midbrain, however is attached to the epithalamus of the diencephalon. Control circadian rhythm and sleep patterns
Optic Chiasm Rostral to the hypothalamus, involved in vision. Point at which the peripheral vision (which is projected to the nasal side of the retina) crosses.
Pituitary Gland Involved in endocrine function. Situated ventral to the hypothalamus.
Infundibulum Stalk of the pituitary gland connecting it with the hypothalamus
Mammilary Bodies Part of the hypothalamus lying in its caudal part, associated with the limbic system
Parahippocampal Gryus Conceals the hippocampus
Inferior Olives Involved in the learning of movements. Located lateral to the medullary pyramids.
Globus Pallidus "Main break" in the basal ganglia acting on the thalamus.
Putamen lateral to the globus pallidus. Part of the basal ganglion which works to inhibit the thalamus
Cuadate nucleus Part of the basal ganglion. Runs lateral to the hippocampus.
Internal Capsule Comprised of the axons entering or leaving the cortex, form this capsule in the vicinity of the thalamus and basal ganglion. Seperates the cuadate from the putamen, globus pallidus. (Runs info from the cortex to the thalamus)
Amygdala Anterior medial portion of the temporal lobe, anterior to the lateral ventricle and the hippocampus. Important component of the limbis system and is involved in the experience and expression of emotion.
Created by: lrcrisp