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A/P Chap. 23

Digestive System

QuestionAnswer
List four functions of the digestive system 1. Ingestion (eating) 2. Digestion 3. Absorption 4. Elimination
Describe the four layers of digestive tract: Layer 1 Layer 1: Mucosa -the innermost layer -composed of mucous membrane -glands secrete mucus, digestive enzymes, and hormones -ducts from exocrine gland empty the lumen of the digestive tract
Describe the four layers of digestive tract: Layer 2 Layer 2: Submucosa -thick layer of loose connective tissue -lies next to the mucosa -contains blood vessels, nerves, glands, and lymphatic vessels
Describe the four layers of digestive tract: Layer 3 Layer 3: Muscle -has 2 layers of smooth muscles are an inner circular layer and an outer longitudinal layer -in between the 2 layer are autonomic nerve fibers -Responsible for movement indigestive tract -another muscle movement called peristalsis
Describe the four layers of digestive tract: Layer 4 Layer 4: Serosa -the outermost lining of the digestive tract -extends as peritoneal membranes
Describe the structure and functions of the organs of the digestive tract 1 of 6 Mouth Mouth: -teeth and tongue -salivary glands: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual
Describe the structure and functions of the organs of the digestive tract 2 of 6 Pharynx Pharynx(throat)
Describe the structure and functions of the organs of the digestive tract 3 of 6 Esophagus Esophagus -the esophagus is a long tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach -there are two sphincters
Describe the structure and functions of the organs of the digestive tract 4 of 6 Stomach Stomach: -the three parts of the stomach are the fundus, body, and pylorus -The stomach functions in digestion; its most important role is regulate the rate at which chime is delivered to the small intestine
Describe the structure and functions of the organs of the digestive tract 5 of6 Small intestine Small intestine: -the three parts of the small intestine are the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum -most of the digestion and absorption occurs within the duodenum -the end products of digestion are absorbed into villi
Describe the structure and functions of the organs of the digestive tract 6 of 6 Large intestine Large intestine: -the large intestine consists of the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, and anus -the large intestine functions in absorption of water and electrolytes
Describe the structure and functions of the accessory organs of the digestive tract Liver 1 of 4 Liver: -the liver has many functions; its most important digestive function is the secretion of bile -the liver receives blood from the portal vein; portal blood is rich in digestive end products
Describe the structure and functions of the accessory organs of the digestive tract Biliary Tree 2 of 4 Biliary Tree: -The biliary tree is composed of the bile ducts that connect the liver, gallbladder, and duodenum -the common bile duct empties into the duodenum
Describe the structure and functions of the accessory organs of the digestive tract Gallbladder 3 of 4 Gallbladder: -the gallbladder functions to store and concentrate bile -the gallbladder contracts and releases bile in response to the hormone cholecystokinin (CCK).
Describe the structure and functions of the accessory organs of the digestive tract Pancreas 4 of 4 Pancreas: -the pancreas secretes the most important digestive enzymes -the pancreatic enzymes empty into the duodenum
Explain the physiology of digestion and absorption 1 of 3 Carbohydrate Digestion Carbohydrate Digestion: -to be absorbed, carbohydrates must be broken down into glucose -Carbohydrates are digested by enzymes called amylases and disaccharidases
Explain the physiology of digestion and absorption 2 of 3 Protein Digestion Protein Digestion: -to be absorbed, proteins must be broken down into amino acids -protein are broken down by proteolytic enzymes or proteases
Explain the physiology of digestion and absorption 3 of 3 Fat Digestion Fat Digestion: -to be absorbed, fats must be broken down into fatty acids and glycerol. -fats are digested by enzymes called lipases. fats are first emulsified by bile
Describe the effects of amylases, proteases, and lipases 1 of 3 Amylases (enzyme): (carbs) -is the first stage, breaks the polysaccharide(many) into disaccharides(two) -the two are: -1.salivary amylase (ptyalin) -2.pancreatic amylase
Describe the effects of amylases, proteases, and lipases Page 2 of 3 Proteases: aka proteolytic enzymes protein -digest proteins -secreted by 3 organs: 1.stomach secrete pepsin 2.intestinal cells secrete enterokinase 3.pancreas secretes trypsin and chymotrypsin -proteins break down to small peptides and amino acids
Describe the effects of amylases, proteases, and lipases Page 3 of 3 Lipases: fats -pancreatic lipases -the end product of fat digestion are fatty acids and glycerol -fat absorbed into lacteals of the villus
Describe the role of bile in the digestion of fats -bile solves the large fat globule problem -bile emulsifies the fats, and the pancreatic and intestinal lipases digest them -end products of fat digestion are fatty acids and glycerol. - the fat products are absorbed into the lacteals of the villi.
What are the five categories of nutrients 1. carbohydrates 2. protein 3. fats(lipids) 4.vitamins 5.mineral
Describe the five categories of nutrients 1. carbohydrates: -are either simple or complex -glucose, the simplest carbohydrates, is the major fuel used by the body for energy
Describe the five categories of nutrients 2. protein: -the body needs essential amino acids, which it cannot synthesize, and nonessential amino acids, which it can synthesize -dietary proteins are complete or incomplete
Describe the five categories of nutrients 3. lipids(fats): -most dietary are triglycerides -fats are either saturated fats (like butter) or unsaturated fats (like oil)
Describe the five categories of nutrients 4. vitamins: -vitamins are small organic molecules that help regulate cell metabolism. -dietary vitamin deficiencies give rise to many diseases -vitamins are either water soluble (vitamin b and c) or fat soluble (vitamin a, d, e, and k)
Describe the five categories of nutrients 5. Minerals: -minerals are inorganic substances necessary for normal body function -mineral deficiencies can cause serious health problems
Key term: Amylase enzyme that digests carbohydrates
Key term: Appendix
Key term: Bile a digestive aid secreted by the liver; it emulsifies fats
Key term: Biliary tree arrangement of ducts that transport bile from the liver to the gallbladder and duodenum; includes hepatic ducts, cystic duct, and common bile ducts
Key term: Cecum part of the large intestine that connects the ileum of the small intestine and the ascending colon of the large intestine
Key term: Chyle milky fluid found in the lacteals of the villi; consists of emulsified fats and lymph
Key term: Chyme paste like mixture of partially digested food, water, and digestive enzymes that is formed in the stomach
Key term: Colon major portion of the large intestine that extends from the cecum to the rectum
Key term: Digestion process of breaking down food into absorbable particles
Key term: Duodenum first part of the small intestine
Key term: Esophagus the tubelike structure that connects the pharynx to the stomach; the food tube
Key term: IIeum distal end of the small intestine
Key term: Jejunum second or middle part of the small intestine
Key term: Lipase enzyme that digest fats into fatty acids and glycerol
Key term: Mineral inorganic substance such as sodium or potassium
Key term: Peristalsis rhythmic contraction of smooth muscle that propels a substance forward; peristalsis in the digestive tract moves food from the esophagus toward the anus
Key term: Protease enzyme that digests protein
Key term: Stomach a digestive organ located between the esophagus and the duodenum
Key term: villus aka villi -fingerlike projections such as the villi that lines the intestine; function in absorption
Key term: Vitamin organic substance that is necessary for normal metabolism
Created by: clist0712