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Plan Making

Best way to solicit citzen input in plan making Neighborhood group leaders and citizen committees
Most effective way to generate adequate citizen participation Developing a multi-faceted public information program
Common citizen surveys Mailed-inexpensive but slow, telephone-fast,cheaper but some no phone & must have interviewers, in-person-works well but very expensive & could be bias.
Charrette Intensive interactive problem-solving process convened around development of specific plans. Experts within & outside community.
Citizen Advisory Committee Citizens groups presumed to represent the ideas and attitudes of local residents. Purpose to advise planning agency.
Planners primary obligation Serve the public interest
Citizen referendum Citizens vote their approval or disapproval of a public measure by official ballot.
Delphi technique Used to develop consensus between two or more groups that are in conflict. Develop goals & objectives. Group facilitation skills.
Focus Groups Representative sample of a community. Facilitated in an informal setting directed toward a specific subject.
Ladder of Citizen Participation: Sherry R. Arnstein Defines citizen participation in terms of amount of control citizens have over policy decision. without distribution of power citizen participation is "empty ritual".
Factors are important to determining populaiton projections Migration, birth rate, death rate
Tiger file Digital database of geographic features, such as roads, railroads, rivers, lakes, legal boundaries, census statistical boundaries, etc. covering the entire United States
Cohort survival method of population projection The study of a group by a specific characteristic (age, grade, income) increased by the rate that group survives onto the next year
Housing Unit Method (HUM) A process of using housing data for population projections
Symptomatic indicators Data series such as building permits that are reflective of population change and can be used in developing current population estimates
Composite method for estimating populations Takes various age groups and determines the estimate for each, then aggregates them together
Constant share technique Assumes that the portion of a sample's type (people, age, occupation, animal, etc..) in a given population/area will remain same over time
Shift share technique An projection for employment / population that takes into account the shift/movement of jobs & people from or to a community
Flood Plain Map A map that shows the vulnerability of a flood according to the 100 year flood
Soil Map A map showing the distribution of soil types or other soil mapping units in a relation to the prominent and cultural features of the earth’s surface
Soil Profile A cross section of the earth's showing the makeup of the soil layers
Agency responsible for soil map database NRCS (National Resource Conservation Service) division of US Dept of Agricultarue
Agency responsible for floodplain maps FEMA
USGS orthophoto An aerial photograph that has been altered in such a way that the lens distortions are removed & so that it may be scaled for mapping purposes
Scale of a USGS orthophoto 1:12,000
Electronic town meeting Electronic tool used to gather public feedback on the WTC proposals
USGS topographic map Scales = uses 1:24,000, 1:25,000, 1:50,000, 1:100,000, 1:250,000
Only map to cover the entire US in detail USGS topographic map
First Year USGS topographic map produced 1879
Topographical map A map that uses contour lines to portray the shape and elevation of the land. Topographic maps render the three-dimensional ups and downs of the terrain on a two-dimensional surface
Information on Topographical map Both natural and manmade features. Natural features include: mountains, valleys, plains, lakes, rivers, and vegetation. Man made features include roads, boundaries, , transmission lines, and major buildings.
How many USGS topographic maps total? 55,000
Plan making A three part process includes 1) Goals and visions, 2) Analysis of current problems, & 3 Creation of alternatives.
Visioning A process whereby citizens attend a series of meetings that provide the opportunity to offer input on how the community could be in the future.
Strategic Planning Short-term in focus & specific in accomplishing certain objectives.
Strategic Planning Used to assist an organization in guiding its future. Strategic planning sets goals, objectives, and policies for reaching the set objective
Goal A general statement that may not be realized, but is something towards which to strive.
Objective A more specific and attainable statement.
Survey Research method that allows one to collect data on a topic that cannot be directly observed. Surveys are used extensively in planning to assess attitudes and characteristics of the public on a wide range of topics.
Cross-sectional survey Gathers information about a population at a single point in time
Longitudinal surveys Gathers information about a population over a period of time
Written surveys Mailed, printed in a newspaper, administered in a group setting, or other method. Used when trying to obtain information from a broad audience. Low cost but typically low response rate.
Group-administered surveys Used for specifc populations. Allows a high and quick response rate. This survey method requires a small sample size.
Drop-off Survey Survey left at someone’s residence or business to be completed. Response rates are higher than mail surveys because of personal contact with the respondent. Expensive due to time required to distribute. Sample size smaller than mail surveys.
Phone/Oral Interview Surveys Useful for yes/no answers. Allows follow up on answers. Response rate varies greatly. Expensive method because of the time to complete. Can be biased by interaction with the interviewer. Difcult to use long questions and multiple answers w/ this method.
Electronic surveys Growing in popularity. Administered on web or via e-mail. Inexpensive method that can generate quick responses. This method has a higher response rate than written or interview surveys. Downside will not reach people w/o Internet access.
Floor Area Ratio (FAR) Is the ratio of the gross floor area of the building to its ground area. It is used primarily to determine building density on a site or, more specifically, the size of a building in relation to the size of the lot on which it sits.
Small Scale Map Shows a large land area with little detail.
Large Scale Map Shows a limited land area in great detail.
Contour lines Show lines of equal elevation.
Contour Interval Show distance between contour lines. The closer together the contour lines are, the steeper the terrain.
Slope The change in elevation divided by the horizontal distance.
Slope of 0-0.5% No drainage, not suited for development.
Slope of 0.5-1% No problems, ideal for all types of development
Slope of 1 - 3% Slight problems for large commercial areas; acceptable for residential
Slope of 3 - 5% Major problems for commercial/industrial/large scale residential
Slope of 5-10% Suitable only for specially designed development.
Scale of 1:24,000 that 1 inch represents 2,000 feet.
1 acre 43 560 square feet 43 560 square feet
Normal Distribution Symmetrical dispersion around the mean. This is a bell curve.
Population The total of a collection.
Sample A subset of the population.
Descriptive Statistics Describe the characteristics of a population.
Inferential Statistics Determines characteristics of a population based on observations made on a sample from that population. What is observed in the sample is assumed to apply to the population.
Central Tendancy The typical or representative value of a dataset. Can be reported by a variety ways including mean, median, and mode.
Mean Average of a distribution.
Median The middle number of a distribution.
Mode The most frequent number in a distribution
Nominal data Data that is classified into mutually exclusive groups that lack intrinsic order. Race and sex are examples of nominal data. Mode is the only measure of central tendency that can be used for this data type.
Ordinal data Data values are ordered so that inferences can be made regarding magnitude, but have no fixed interval between values. educational attainment or a letter grade on a test. Mode and median are the only measures of central tendency that can be used.
Interval data data that has an ordered relationship with a magnitude, such as temperature. 10 degrees is not twice as cold as 20 degrees.
Ratio data Data has an ordered relationship and equal intervals. Distance is an example--2 miles is twice as long as 1 mile. Any form of central tendency can be used for this type of data.
Range Simplest measure of dispersion, it is the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.
Variance The average squared difference of scores from the mean score of a distribution.
Standard deviation is the square root of the variance.
Standard Error The standard deviation of a sampling distribution. Standard errors indicate the degree of sampling fluctuation. The larger the sample size the smaller the standard error.
Confidence Interval Gives an estimated range of values that is likely to include an unknown population parameter. The width of the confidence interval gives us an idea of how uncertain we are about the unknown parameter.
Hypothesis A statement expressing a relationship. Makes a prediction of what you are trying to prove.
Null hypothesis Relationship makes no difference; relationship has resulted from random chance.
Alternate hypothesis States the hypothesis the research expects to support; the possibility that an observed effect is genuine
Major population estimation and projection methods Linear, Symptomatic, Ratio (Step-Down) Method, & Cohort Survival.
Linear Method Uses the rate of growth (or decline) in population over a period of time to estimate the current or future population.
Symptomatic Method Uses available data to estimate the current population.
Step-Down Ratio Method Uses the ratio between the population of a city and a county (or larger geographical unit) at a known point in time, such as the decennial census. This ratio is used to project the current or future population.
Cohort Survival Method Uses the current population plus natural increase and net migration to calculate a future population. The population is calculated for men and women in specific age groups.
Net Migration The difference between the number of people moving in and the number of people moving out.
Economic Base Analysis looks at basic and non-basic economic activities. Basic activities are those that can be exported, while non-basic activities are those that are locally oriented. The exporting (basic) industries make up the economic base of a region.
Basic Economic Activites Those that can be exported, while non-basic activities are those that are locally oriented. The exporting industries make up the economic base of a region.
Non-Basic Activities Locally oriented.
Location-Quotient (LQ) A ratio of an industry’s share of local employment divided by its share of the nation (or other level of government). A ratio of less than 1 indicates that an area imports an industry’s products or services, a ratio of greater than 1 indicates exporting.
Shift-Share Analysis Analyzes a local economy in comparison with a larger economy. This analysis looks at the differential shift, proportional shift, and economic growth.
Input-output analysis Quantitative method to assist in economic policy decision-making. The analysis links suppliers and purchasers to determine the economic output of a region. Identifies primary suppliers, intermediate suppliers, intermediate purchasers, & final purchasers.
Household Income Defined in terms of the amount of income they earn relative to 100% of the Area Median Income
Area Median Income (AMI) Refers to the middle or midpoint income for a particular area. The term is used to estimate the "average" income for a particular area.
Moderate income households Earn between 80-120% of Area Median Income.
Low income households Earn between 50-80% of Area Median Income.
Very low income households Earn no more than 50% of Area Median Income.
Poverty thresholds Used for calculating all official poverty population statistics
Poverty guidelines Simplified version used for administrative purposes e.g. determining financial eligibility for certain federal programs.
Poverty Rate 12.6 percent (increased for 4 years from 2000 - 2004)
Median household Income $46,326 annually
Baby Boomers People born between 1946 and 1964.
Generation X People born between 1965 and 1976.
Echo Boom (Generation Y) People born between 1977 and 2000.
Megalopolis A many-centered, multi-city, urban area of more than 10 million inhabitants, generally dominated by low-density settlement and complex networks of economic specialization.
Urban cluster A contiguous, densely settled census block groups and blocks that meet minimum population density requirements, along with adjacent densely settled census blocks that together encompass a population of at least 2,500 people but fewer than 50,000 people.
Urbanized Area A contiguous, densely settled census block groups and blocks that meet minimum population density requirements, along with adjacent densely settled census blocks that together encompass a population of at least 50,000 people.
Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) Digital data about the elevation of the earth's surface as it varies across communities allows planners to analyze and map it.
Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR ) Uses a laser, instead of radio waves, that is mounted in an airplane to provide detailed topographic information.
Fiscal Impact Analysis Used to estimate the costs and revenues of a proposed development on a local government.
Average Per Capita Method Divides the total local budget by the existing population in a city to determine the average per-capita cost for the jurisdiction. Type of Fiscal Impact Analysis
Adjusted Per Capita Method Varries fiscal impact based on expectations about the new development. Type of Fiscal Impact Analysis
Disaggregated Per Capita Method Estimates the costs and revenues based on major land uses. Type of Fiscal Impact Analysis
Dynamic Method Applies statistical analysis to time-series data from a jurisdiction. Type of Fiscal Impact Analysis
The Ordinance of 1785 Established a system of rectangular survey coordinates for virtually all of the country west of the Appalachians. Established the basis for the Public Land Survey System.
Public Land Survey System Land was to be systematically surveyed into square townships, six miles on a side. Each of these townships was sub-divided into thirty-six sections of one square mile or 640 acres (259 hectares).
TIGER Files Include Roads, Census Blocks, and Census Tracts
Base Map Type of map used as a starting point for many planning projects, shows the essential natural or man determined features of an area.
Created by: somer123
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