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A/P Chap. 2

Basic Chemistry

Matter is anything that occupies space and has weight exist in three states of: Solid, Liquid, and Gas
Element is a fundamental substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler form by ordinary chemical reactions
List the four elements that compose 96% of body weight 1. Carbon 2. Hydrogen 3. Oxygen 4. Nitrogen
Describe the three components of an atom An atom is the smallest unit of an element with that element's chemical characteristics (the basic unit of matter), there three subatomic particles: neutrons, protons, and electrons.
Describe the role of electrons in the formation of chemical bonds Atoms are attracted to each other because they want to achieve a stable outer electron shell. The three types of chemical bonds are: Ionic bond, Covalent bond, and Hydrogen bond.
What the atomic number The atomic number: the number of protons.
What the atomic weight The atomic weight: the number of neutrons and protons.
What is an isotope An isotope is an atom with the same atomic number but different atomic weight.
What is an radioisotope A radioisotope is an unstable isotope.
What an Ionic bond: a transfer of electrons between atoms
What a Covalent bond: sharing of electron by the outer shells of the atom. ex. carbon (C)atoms always form covalent bonds
Hydrogen bond: are intermolecular bonds. Hydrogen bonds are weak so they are easily attracted to a high electronegative atom(ex. O(oxygen), N(nitrogen), F(Fluorine) )and bond to these atoms to form polar bonds(uneven sharing of forces) ex. Water, a very polar molecule.
Electrolyte is a substance that forms ions when it is dissolved in water (they form electrical currents)
Ions Elements that carry an electrical charge
Cation an Ion that is positively charged
Anion an Ion that is negatively charged
What the difference between a molecule and a compound? Molecule: when two or more atoms bond together, two identical atoms may bond as well as a molecule can be formed when atoms of different element combine. Compound: a substance that contains molecules formed by two or more different atoms
List five reason why water is essential to life. 1. Universal solvent( most substances dissolve in water) 2. Temperature regulator 3. Lubricant 4. Chemical reaction 5. Protective device
Define energy Is the ability to perform work
Describe the role of adenosine triphosphates (ATP) in energy transfer ATP is a energy transfer molecule and the energy is stored in high-energy phosphate bonds (when those phosphate snap that when the energy is released)
Catalysts: Speed up the rate of chemical reaction
Enzymes: when proteins perform the role of catalysts
Acid: is an electrolyte that dissociates into hydrogen ion(H+)
Base: is a substance that combines with (H+) and eliminates (H+): a base neutralizes an acid by producing a salt and water
pH: Measures acidity (0) and alkalinity (14) . A pH of 7 is neutral A pH more than 7 is basic aka alkaline. A pH less than 7 is acidic
What the normal range of pH for blood 7.35-7.45
If blood range is less than 7.35, the patient is acidotic
If blood range is more than 7.45, the patient is alkalotic
How is the blood pH regulated By buffers, the respiratory system, and the kidneys
Mixture: is a blend of two or more substances that can be separated by ordinary physical means. (ex. Sugar and pieces of iron are mixed they can be separated by a magnet and the sugar will still be sugar and iron will still be iron.)
Solutions: the particles mix together remain evenly distributed and has 2 parts a solvent and solute. Solute: is substance in small amount and can be found in solid, liquid, or gas phase. Solvent: is substance in greater amount and can only be found in liquid or gas
Aqueous solution water is the solvent (more of it in solution)
tincture: alcohol is the solvent (more of it in solution)
Suspensions: are mixtures, the particles are relatively large and tend to settle to the bottom unless the mixture is shaken continuously. (ex. sand and water are shaken oven time the sand will settle back to the bottom)
Colloidal Suspension: the particles do not dissolve, but they are so small that they remain suspended within the liquid, even when not being shaken.
colloid is a gel-like substance that resembles egg whites
Key term: Acid Substance that donates or releases hydrogen ions (H+) when it ionizes the water
Key term: Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Energy-storing and energy-transferring molecules found in all cells
Key term: Atom Fundamental unit of an element; the smallest part of the element that has the characteristics of that element
Key term: Base Substance such as the hydroxyl ion (OH-) that combines with hydrogen ion (H+)
Key term: Catalyst Any substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
Key term: Compound substance composed of twop or more chemical elements such as water ex. h2o
Key term: Covalent bond bond or attraction formed by the sharing of electron between atoms
Key term: Electrolyte compound that dissociates into ions when dissolved in water
Key term: Element substance composed of only one kind of atom
Key term: Energy ability to perform work
Key term: Enzyme organic catalyst; it speed up the rate of chemical reaction
Key term: Hydrogen bond weak intermolecular bonds formed between hydrogen and a negatively charged atom such as oxygen or nitrogen
Key term: Ionic bond bond formed by the exchange of electrons between atoms.
Key term: Isotope element that has the same number of protons and electrons but a different number of neutrons
Key term: Matter anything that occupies space; may occur as solid, liquid, or gas
Key term: Molecules chemical combustion of two or more atoms
Key term: pH a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration
Key term: Solution mixture in which the particles that are mixed together remain evenly distributed
Key term: Suspension
Created by: clist0712