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EH Chapter 22

JAHKMLHS Chapter 22 The French Revolution and Napoleon

estate one of the three classes into which French society was divided before the revolution—the clergy, the nobles, and the townspeople
taille an annual direct tax, usually on land or property, that provided a regular source of income for the French monarchy
bourgeoisie the middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional people
sans-culottes “without breeches”; members of the Paris Commune who considered themselves ordinary patriots (in other words, they wore long trousers instead of the fine knee-length breeches of the nobles)
consumer one who uses economic goods
Marie Antoinette last queen of France before the French Revolution; her extravagance caused popular resentment
Louis XVI last king of France before the French Revolution
Estates-General French parliament
domestic relating to or originating within one’s country
National Convention first French assembly elected by a suffrage without distinctions of class; provide a new constitution for the country after the overthrow of the monarchy
Maximilien Robespierre in 1793 for three months nominated all the members of the Government Committees, placed his men in all places of influence in the commune of Paris, and assumed complete control of the Revolutionary Tribunal.
Committee of Public Safety set up on April 6, 1793 to provide for the defense of the nation against its enemies, foreign and domestic, and to oversee the already existing organs of executive government
electors qualified voters
coup d’état sudden overthrow of the government
Directory French Revolutionary government set up by the Constitution of the Year III, which lasted four years, from November 1795 to November 1799
Reign of Terror "if material or moral proof exists, independently of the evidence of witnesses, the latter will not be heard, unless this formality should appear necessary, either to discover accomplices or for other important reasons concerning the public interest."
consulate government established in France after the overthrow of the Directory in 1799, with Napoleon as first consul in control of the entire government
allied states countries defeated by Napoleon and forced to join his struggle against Britain (Prussia, Austria, Russia, and Sweden)
nationalism sense of unique identity of a people based on common language, religion, and national symbols
Corsica island in the Mediterranean that is the birth place of Napoleon
Concordat of 1801 agreement between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII which restored much power to the papacy; however, Napoleon selected the bishops and supervised church finances.
Anne-Louise-Germaine de Staël accused Napoleon of persecuting his critics and engaging the country in extravagant military campaigns
dependent states kingdoms ruled by relatives of Napoleon—Spain, Holland, the kingdom of Italy, the Swiss republic, the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, Confederation of the Rhine (a union of all German states except Austria and Prussia)
conservatism political philosophy based on tradition and social stability, favoring obedience to political authority and organized religion
principle of intervention idea that great powers have the right to send armies into countries where there are revolutions to restore legitimate governments
liberalism political philosophy holding that people should be as free as possible from government restraint and that civil liberties should be protected
Waterloo Duke of Wellington defeated Napoleon on June 18, 1815, after which Napoleon is exiled to St. Helena
civil involving the general public
constitution basic principles and laws of a nation, state, or social group that determine the powers and duties of the government and guarantee certain rights to the people
Congress of Vienna meeting to arrange the final peace between the victors and France; outlawed the Atlantic slave trade
Klemens von Metternich most influential leader at the Congress of Vienna
Concert of Europe meetings of Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria (eventually France) to discuss common interests and to maintain peace in Europe
Created by: jim.haferman