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EH Chapter 23

JAHKMLHS Chapter 23 Industrialization and Nationalism

enclosure movement laws legal process in which a number of small landholdings were combined to create one larger farm whose land was no longer available for communal use
capital money available for investments
entrepreneur person who finds new business opportunities and new ways to make profits
cottage industry method of production in which tasks are done by individuals in their rural homes
puddling process in which coke derived from coal is used to burn away impurities in crude iron to produce high quality iron
industrial capitalism economic system based on industrial production or manufacturing
Factory Act of 1833 set nine as the minimum age for employment and limited hours for older children
socialism system in which society, usually in the form of government, owns and controls the means of production
Karl Marx believed that capitalism contained the seeds of its own destruction and that Communism was the inevitable end
James Hargreaves invented a machine called the spinning jenny which made the spinning process much faster
James Watt made changes in the steam engine that enabled the engine to drive machinery
Robert Owen utopian socialist who believed that humans would show their natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment
Henry Cort discoverer of the puddling process for converting pig iron into wrought iron
Richard Trevithick harnessed high-pressure steam and constructed the world’s first steam railway locomotive in 1803
Robert Fulton “father of steam navigation” because he made steamboats a commercial success
universal male suffrage right of all men to vote in elections
multinational empire a group of states or countries in which people of many ethnicities live
Frankfurt Assembly prepared a constitution for a newly united Germany
Chamber of Deputies lower chamber of the French Parliament, elected by census suffrage from 1814 to 1848
militarism policy of a glorifying military power and keeping an army prepared at all times.
Kaiser German for “caesar”; the title of the emperors of the Second German Empire
Otto von Bismarck “Iron Chancellor” who manipulated European rivalries to make Germany a world power
plebiscite popular vote
regime government in power
emancipation act of setting free
unification act, process, or result of making into a coherent or coordinated whole; the state of being united
Giuseppe Garibaldi with an army of 1,000 "Red Shirts" this man captured Palermo and by September had crossed over to the mainland and captured Naples making him master of southern Italy and Sicily
Alexander II convinced by the Crimean War that reform was essential to keep pace with the West this ruler emancipated of the Serfs
Compromise of 1867 created the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary
romanticism intellectual movement that emerged at the end of the eighteenth century in reaction to the ideas of the Enlightenment; it stressed feelings, emotion, and imagination as sources of knowing
secularization indifference to or rejection of religion or religious consideration
natural selection principle that some organisms are more adaptable to the environment than others
realism mid-nineteenth century movement that rejected romanticism and sought to portray lower- and middle-class life as it actually was
Gustav Flaubert perfected the realist novel; author of Madame Bovary
Charles Dickens showed realities of life for the lower and middle classes in novels such as Oliver Twist and David Copperfield
Charles Darwin promoted the idea that man, as well as other animals, has evolved over a long period of time from earlier, simpler forms of life
Louis Pasteur proposed the germ theory of disease
Dmitry Mendeleyev classified all the material elements then known on the basis of the atomic weights
Michael Faraday primitive generator that laid the foundation for the use of electric current
Created by: jim.haferman