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SC 2110 Chp 7

Urinary System Study Review

Question & AnswersQuestions & Answers
A. Using the following terms, trace the path of urine from the renal arterioles (bloodstream) to the point at which urine leaves the body. The first answer is provided. Use following words to answer 1-8 glomerular capsule, glomerulus , renal pelvis, renal tubule, ureter, urethra, urinary bladder, urinary meatus
1. glomerulus 5. ureter
2. glomerular capsule 6. urinary bladder
3. renal tubule 7. urethra
4. renal pelvis 8. urinary meatus
B. Match the term in Column I with its definition or a term of similar meaning in Column II. Write the correct letter in the spaces provided.
1. voiding- C A. Hormone secreted by the kidney that stimulates formation of red blood cells.
2. trigone- I B . Notch on the surface of the kidney where blood vessels and nerves enter
3. renal cortex- J C. Urination; micturition
4. renal medulla- G D. Nitrogenous waste
5. urea- D E. Cup-like collecting region of the renal pelvis
6. erythropoietin- A F. S mall molecule that carries an electric charge in solution
7. renin- H G. Inner region of the kidney
8. electrolyte- F H. Hormone made by the kidney; increases blood pressure
9. hilum- B I. Triangular area in the bladder
10. calya (calix)- E J. Outer section of the kidney
C. Give the meanings of the following medical terms.
1. caliceal- pertaining to a calix (collecting cup of renal pelvis) 8. urethrostenosis- narrowing (narrowed portion) of the urethra
2. uric acid- nitrogenous waste excreted in urine; high levels of uric acid in the blood are associated with gouty arthritis 9. vesicoureteral reflux- backflow of urine from the bladder into the ureter
3. urinary meatal stenosis- narrowing of the urinary meatus 10. creatinine- nitrogenous waste produced as a result of muscle metabolism and excreted in the urine
4. cystocele- hernia of the urinary bladder 11. medullary- pertaining to the inner, middle section (of the kidney)
5. pyelolithotomy- incision to remove a stone from the renal pelvis 12. cortical- pertaining to the outer section (of the kidney)
6. trigonitis- infl ammation of the trigone (triangular area in the bladder in which the ureters enter and urethra exits) 13. calciferol- active form of vitamin D secreted by the kidneys
7. ureteroileostomy- new opening between the ureter and the ileum (an anastomosis); urine then leaves the body through an ileostomy; this surgery (ileal conduit) is performed when the bladder has been removed
D. The following terms all contain the suffix -uria, meaning urination. Write their meanings in the spaces provided.
1. nocturia- frequent urination at night 4. polyuria- excessive urination
2. dysuria- painful urination 5. anuria- no urination
3. oliguria- scanty urination
E. In the following terms, -uria means urine condition (substance in the urine). What ’ s in the urine?
1. pyuria- pus 4. glycosuria- sugar
2. albuminuria- protein 5. ketonuria- ketones or acetones
3. hematuria- blood 6. bacteriuria- bacteria
F. Give the meanings of the following terms that relate to urinary signs and symptoms.
1. azotemia- excess nitrogenous waste in the bloodstream 4. enuresis- bedwetting
2. polydipsia- condition of much thirst 5. urinary retention- inability to release urine from the bladder
3. urinary incontinence- inability to hold urine in the bladder 6. ketosis- abnormal condition of ketone bodies (acids and acetones) in the blood and body tissues
G. Give short answers for the following. ANSWER FOR G: 1-7
1. What is the difference between hematuria and uremia? Hematuria is the presence of blood in the urine, and uremia is a toxic condition of excess urea (nitrogenous waste) in the bloodstream. Hematuria is a symptomatic condition of the urine (-uria), and uremia is an abnormal condition of the blood (-emia).
2. What is diuresis? Diuresis is the excessive production of urine (polyuria).
3. What is a diuretic? A diuretic is a drug or chemical (caffeine or alcohol) that causes diuresis to occur.
4. What is antidiuretic hormone? Antidiuretic hormone is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland that normally helps the renal tubules to reabsorb water back into the bloodstream. It works against diuresis to help retain water in the blood.
5. What is hyponatremia? Hyponatremia is abnormally low levels of sodium in the bloodstream.
6. What is hyperkalemia? Hyperkalemia is abnormally high concentration of potassium in the blood. The major cause is chronic renal failure.
7. What is PKU? PKU is phenylketonuria. This occurs when there are high levels of phenylketones in urine and phenylalanine in the blood. The condition causes mental retardation in infants.
H. Match the listed terms, pertaining to urinalysis, with their meanings/descriptions that follow. Use these words to answer H 1-9 albuminuria, bilirubinuria, glycosuria, hematuria, ketonuria, pH, pyuria, sediment, specific gravity
1. A bnormal particles present in the urine—cells, bacteria, casts, and crystals sediment
2 . Smoky-red color of urine caused by the presence of blood hematuria (blood in urine)
3. Turbid (cloudy) urine caused by the presence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and pus pyuria (pus in the urine)
4 . Sugar in the urine; a sign of diabetes mellitus and a result of hyperglycemia glycosuria (sugar in the urine)
5. Urine test that reflects the acidity or alkalinity of the urine pH
6 . High levels of acids and acetones accumulate in the urine as a result of abnormal fat breakdown Ketonuria (ketone bodies in the urine)
7. Dark pigment that accumulates in urine as a result of liver or gallbladder disease bilirubinuria (high levels of bilirubin in the urine)
8. Urine test that reflects the concentration of the urine specific gravity
9. Leaky glomeruli can produce accumulation of protein in the urine albuminuria
I. Describe the following abnormal conditions that affect the kidney. ANSWER
1. renal failure kidney does not excrete wastes
2. polycystic kidney multiple fluid-filled sacs form in and on the kidney
3. interstitial nephritis inflammation of the connective tissue (interstitium) lying between the renal tubules
4. glomerulonephritis inflammation of the glomerulus of the kidney (may be a complication after a streptococcal infection)
5. nephrolithiasis condition of kidney stones (renal calculi)
6. renal cell carcinoma malignant tumor of the kidney in adults
7. pyelonephritis inflammation of the renal pelvis and parenchyma of the kidney (caused by a bacterial infection, such as with Escherichia coli, that spreads to the urinary tract from the gastrointestinal tract)
8. Wilms tumor malignant tumor of the kidney in children
9. nephrotic syndrome group of symptoms (proteinuria, edema, hypoalbuminemia) that appears when the kidney is damaged by disease; also called nephrosis
9. nephrotic syndrome high blood pressure caused by kidney disease
J. Match the listed terms with their meanings/descriptions that follow. Use these words to answer J 1-10 abscess, catheter, diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, edema, essential hypertension, nephroptosis, renal colic, secondary hypertension, stricture
1. idiopathic high blood pressure --essential hypertension 6 . high blood pressure caused by kidney disease or another disease --secondary hypertension
2. swelling, fluid in tissues--edema 7. tube for withdrawing or giving fluid--catheter
3. narrowed area in a tube --stricture 8 . inadequate secretion or resistance of the kidney to the action of antidiuretic hormone --diabetes insipidus
4. collection of pus --abscess 9. prolapse of a kidney --nephroptosis
5. inadequate secretion of insulin or improper utilization of insulin leads to this condition-- diabetes mellitus 10. severe pain resulting from a stone that is blocking a ureter or a kidney --renal colic
K. Give the meanings of the abbreviations in Column I. Then select the letter of the sentence in Column II that is the best association for each.
1. CAPD-- (F)- continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis A. Bacterial invasion leads to this condition; acute cystitis is an example.
2. BUN-- (D)- blood urea nitrogen B. This electrolyte is secreted by renal tubules into the urine.
3. RP-- (G)- retrograde pyelogram C. A machine removes nitrogenous wastes from the patient ’ s blood.
4. cysto-- (E)-cystoscopy D . High levels measured on this test lead to the suspicion of renal disease.
5. UA-- (I)-urinalysis E. This endoscopic procedure is used to examine the interior of the urinary bladder.
6. UTI-- (A)-urinary tract infection F. Dialysate (fluid) is injected into the peritoneal cavity and then drained out.
7. CKD-- (J)-chronic kidney disease G. Contrast is injected into the urinary bladder and ureters and x-ray pictures of the urinary tract are taken.
8. K+ -- (B)-potassium H. X-ray pictures of the urinary bladder and urethra are taken while the patient urinates.
9. VCUG-- (H)-voiding cystourethrogram I. The parts of this test include specific gravity, color, protein, glucose, and pH.
10. HD-- (C)-hemodialysis J. This condition includes mild to severe kidney failure.
L. Match the listed procedures with their definitions/meanings that follow. Use these words to answer L 1-10: cystectomy, cystoscopy, cystostomy, lithotripsy, nephrectomy, nephrolithotomy, nephrostomy, ureterolithotomy, urethroplasty, ureteroileostomy
1. Excision of a kidney --nephrectomy 6. Surgical repair of the urethra --urethroplasty
2. Surgical incision into the kidney to remove a stone --nephrolithotomy 7. Creation of an artificial opening into the kidney (via catheter) from the outside of the body -- nephrostomy
3. Visual examination of the urinary bladder via endoscope -- cystoscopy 8 . Surgical formation of an opening from the bladder to the outside of the body --cystostomy
4. Crushing of stones--lithotripsy 9. Removal of the urinary bladder -- cystectomy
5 . New opening of the ureters to a segment of ileum (in place of the bladder) --ureteroileostomy 10. Incision of a ureter to remove a stone --ureterolithotomy
M. Circle the correct term to complete the following sentences. PICK THE CORRECT ANSWER OUT OF THE WORDS THAT ARE IN "( )"
1 . After diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma (made by renal biopsy), Dr. Davis advised Donna that (nephrostomy, meatotomy, nephrectomy) would be necessary. nephrectomy
2 . Ever since Bill’ s condition of gout was diagnosed, he has been warned that uric acid crystals could accumulate in his blood and tissues, leading to (pyuria, renal calculi, cystocele). renal calculi—don ’ t confuse a calculus (stone) with dental calculus, which is an accumulation of dental plaque that has hardened
3 . The voiding cystourethrogram demonstrated blockage of urine flow from Jim’ s bladder and (hydronephrosis, renal ischemia, azotemia). hydronephrosis
4 . Narrowed arterioles in the kidney increase blood pressure, so (urinary incontinence, urinary retention, nephrosclerosis) is often associated with hypertension. nephrosclerosis
5. Eight-year-old Willy continually wet his bed at night while sleeping. His pediatrician instructed his mother to limit Willy’ s intake of fluids in the evening to discourage his (nocturia, oliguria, enuresis). enuresis
6. David ’ s chronic type 1 diabetes eventually resulted in (nephropathy, meatal stenosis, urolithiasis), which led to renal failure. nephropathy
7 . After Sue’ s bilateral renal failure, her doctor advised dialysis and possible (cystostomy, nephrolithotomy, renal transplantation). renal transplantation
8. When Maria’ s left kidney stopped functioning, her contralateral kidney overdeveloped or (metastasized, atrophied, hypertrophied) to meet the increased workload. hypertrophied
9 . A popular diet program recommends eating foods high in fats and protein. People on this diet check their urine for the presence of (ketones, glucose, amino acids). ketones
10. PART A- Andrea’ s urinalysis revealed proteinuria, & her ankles began to swell, demonstrating pitting, a condition known as (ascites, edema, stricture). edema
10. PART B- Her (gastroenterologist, urologist, nephrologist) diagnosed Andrea ’ s condition as (polycystic kidneys, nephrotic syndrome, bladder carcinoma) and recommended drugs to heal leaky glomeruli and diuretics to reduce swelling. nephrologist nephrotic syndrome
Created by: timelissa71511