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SC 2110 Chp 7

Urinary System Combining Form

Combing Form or SuffixMeaningTerminology Examples
STRUCTURES
cali/o, calic/o calyx (calix); cup-shaped caliectasis- caliceal-
cyst/o urinary bladder cystitis- Bacterial infections often cause acute or chronic cystitis. In acute cystitis, the bladder contains blood as a result of mucosal
cyst/o continued... urinary bladder cystectomy - cystostomy- An opening is made into the urinary bladder from the outside of the body. A catheter is placed into the bladder for drainage.
glomerul/o glomerulus glomerular capsule
meat/o meatus meat al stenosis
nephr/o kidney paranephric- nephropathy- (n ĕ -FR Ŏ -p ă -th ē nephroptosis- Downward displacement or dropping of a kidney when its anatomic supports are weakened. Nephropexy (pexy means fixation) is an operation to put a “floating” kidney in place.
nephr/o continued... kidney nephrolithotomy- Incision (percutaneous) into the kidney 2 remove a stone.
nephr/o continued... kidney hydronephrosis- Obstruction of urine flow may be caused by renal calculi, compression of the ureter by tumor, or hyperplasia of the prostate gland @ the base of the bladder in males.
nephr/o continued... kidney nephrostomy- Surgical opening 2 the outside of the body . This is necessary when a ureter becomes obstructed & obstruction cannot be removed easily. Renal pelvis becomes distended w/ urine (hydronephrosis), making nephrostomy necessary.
pyel/o renal pelvis pyelolithotomy-Removal of a large calculus (stone) contributing to blockage of urine flow and development of infection. The renal pelvis is surgically opened.
ren/o kidney renal ischemia- renal colic-Colic is intermittent spasms of pain caused by inflammation and distention of an organ. In renal colic, pain results from calculi in the kidney or ureter.
trigon/o trigone (region of the bladder) trigonitis-
ureter/o ureter ureteroplasty- ureteroileostomy- After cystectomy, the urologic surgeon forms a pouch from a segment of the ileum, used in place of the bladder to carry urine from ureters out of the body
urethr/o urethra urethritis- urethroplasty- urethral stricture- A stricture is an abnormal narrowing of an opening or passageway.
vesic/o urinary bladder intravesical- Do not confuse the term vesical with the term vesicle, which is a small blister on the skin. vesicoureteral reflux-
SUBSTANCES AND URINARY SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
albumin/o albumin (a protein in the blood) albuminuria- The suffix -uria means urine condition. This finding can indicate malfunction of the kidney as protein leaks out of damaged glomeruli. Microalbuminuria is leakage of very small amounts of albumin through the glomeruli.
azot/o nitrogen azotemia- This toxic condition is characteristic of uremia. It is indicated by an elevated BUN (blood urea nitrogen) test.
bacteri/o bacteria bacteriuria- Usually a sign of urinary tract infection (UTI). The bacteria in the urine are cultured (grown in a special nutrient environment) & tested w/ antibiotics 2 determine which inhibit growth. This is known as culture & sensitivity testing(C&S).
dips/o thirst polydipsia- Commonly, a sign of diabetes mellitus or diabetes insipidus. Polydipsia occurs when excessive urination (polyuria) signals the brain to cause thirst.
kal/o potassium hyperkalemia-Because potassium normally is excreted by the kidneys, it accumulates in blood when the kidneys fail.
ket/o, keton/o ketone bodies (ketoacids and acetone) ketosis-Often called ketoacidosis, because acids accumulate in the blood& tissues.The breath of a patient w/ ketosis has a sweet or “fruity” odor. This is produced by acetone (a ketone body) released from the blood in the lungs &exhaled through the mouth.
ket/o, keton/o continued... ketone bodies (ketoacids and acetone) ketonuria-
lith/o stone nephrolithiasis-
natr/o sodium hyponatremia-This condition can occur when water intake is excessive—primary polydipsia, or when athletes drink too much water in high-endurance events.
noct/o night nocturia-Frequent, excessive urination at night.
olig/o scanty oliguria-
-poietin substance that forms erythropoietin-
py/o pus pyuria-
-tripsy crushing lithotripsy -
ur/o urine (urea) uremia-This toxic state results when nitrogenous waste accumulates abnormally in the blood. enuresis-Literally, a condition (-esis) of being “in urine”; bed-wetting.
ur/o continued... urine (urea) diuresis- Di- (from dia-) means complete. Caffeine and alcohol are well-known diuretics —they induce increased excretion of urine (diuresis).
ur/o continued... urine (urea) antidiuretic hormone-This hormone from the pituitary gland normally acts on the renal tubules to promote water reabsorption. It is also called vasopressin and is abbreviated ADH.
urin/o urine urinary incontinence-Incontinence literally means not (in-) able to hold (tin) together (con-). This is loss of control of the passage of urine from the bladder
urin/o continued... urine Stress incontinence occurs with strain on the bladder opening during coughing or sneezing. Urgency incontinence occurs with the inability to hold back urination when feeling the urge to void
urin/o continued... urine urinary retention- This symptom results when the outflow of urine from the bladder is blocked.
-uria urination; urine condition dysuria- anuria-Commonly caused by renal failure or urinary tract obstruction. hematuria-Microhematuria is hematuria that is visible only under a microscope, as opposed to gross hematuria, which can be seen with the naked eye.
-uria continued... urination; urine condition glycosuria-A sign of diabetes mellitus. polyuria-A symptom of both diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus.
Created by: timelissa71511