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SC 2110 Chp 7

Urinary System Vocabulary

TermDefinition
arteriole Small artery
calciferol Active form of vitamin D, secreted by the kidney.
calyx or calix (plural :calyces or calices) Cup-like collecting region of the renal pelvis. The term comes from Greek, kalux meaning a cup or case surrounding a flower bud.
catheter Tube for injecting or removing fluids
cortex Outer region of an organ; the renal cortex is the outer region of the kidney ( cortical means pertaining to the cortex).
creatinine Nitrogenous waste excreted in urine. Creatinine clearance is a measure of the efficiency of the kidneys in removing (clearing) creatinine from the blood. Creatinine is a product of muscle metabolism.
electrolyte Chemical element that carries electrical charge when dissolved in water. Electrolytes are necessary 4 functioning muscles & nerves.Kidneys maintain the proper balance of electrolytes & water in blood. Potassium (K +) & sodium (Na +) are electrolytes.
erythropoietin (EPO) Hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate the production of red blood cells by bone marrow. -Poietin means a substance that forms. EPO ( Ē -p ō ) stimulates red blood cell production, and thus increases the amount of oxygen delivered to muscles.
erythropoietin (EPO) continued... This enhances athletic endurance. However, use of EPO is a form of blood doping and is prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Authority (WADA).
filtration Process whereby some substances, but not all, pass through a filter.
glomerular capsule Enclosing structure surrounding each glomerulus. The glomerular capsule is also known as Bowman ’ s capsule and it collects the material that is filtered from the blood through the walls of the glomerulus.
glomerulus ( plural :glomeruli) Tiny ball of capillaries (microscopic blood vessels) in the kidney.
hilum Depression in an organ where blood vessels & nerves enter & leave. Hilum comes from Latin meaning a small thing. It is also used in the respiratory system to mark the depression in the lung where blood vessels, bronchus, & lymphatic vessels enter & leave.
kidney One of two bean-shaped organs on either side of the backbone in the lumbar region; it filters nitrogenous wastes from the bloodstream to form urine.
meatus Opening or canal.
medulla Inner region of an organ. The renal medulla is the inner region of the kidney. The term comes from the Latin medulla , meaning marrow (inner part). The medullary cavity in long bones is the innermost part containing red and yellow marrow.
nephron Combination of glomerulus & renal tubule where filtration, reabsorption, & secretion take place in the kidney. It is the functional unit of the kidney, each capable of forming urine by itself. There are about 1 million nephrons in a kidney.
nitrogenous waste Substance containing nitrogen and excreted in urine. Examples of nitrogenous wastes are urea, uric acid, and creatinine.
potassium (K +) Electrolyte regulated by the kidney so that a proper concentration is maintained within the blood. Potassium is essential for allowing muscle contraction & conduction of nervous impulses.
reabsorption Process whereby renal tubules return materials necessary to the body back into the bloodstream.
renal artery Blood vessel that carries blood to the kidney.
renal pelvis Central collecting region in the kidney.
renal tubule Microscopic tube in the kidney where urine is formed after filtration.
renal vein Blood vessel that carries blood away from the kidney and toward the heart.
renin Hormone secreted by the kidney; it raises blood pressure by influencing vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels).
sodium (Na +) Electrolyte regulated in the blood & urine by the kidneys; needed for proper transmission of nerve impulses, heart activity, & other metabolic functions. A common form of sodium is sodium chloride (table salt).
trigone Triangular area in the urinary bladder.
urea Major nitrogenous waste excreted in urine.
ureter One of the two tubes leading from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
urethra Tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.
uric acid Nitrogenous waste excreted in the urine.
urinary bladder Hollow, muscular sac that holds and stores urine.
urination (voiding) Process of expelling urine; also called micturition.
Created by: timelissa71511