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HC 101 Endocrine Sys

Endocrine System

TermDefinition
Acromegaly a disorder that is caused by chronic overproduction of growth hormone by the pituitary gland.
Adenocarcinoma a malignant tumor originating in glandular epithelium
Adenoma a benign tumor of a glandular structure or of glandular origin.
ADH Antidiuretic Hormone
Adrenalitis inflammation of the adrenal glands.
Aldosteronism a condition that is characterized by excessive secretion of aldosterone and typically by loss of body potassium, muscular weakness, and elevated blood pressure.
Cal/o root word for calcium.
Calcitonin a polypeptide hormone especially from the thyroid gland that tends to lower the level of calcium in the blood plasma.
Cortisol Glucocorticoid C21H30O5 produced by adrenal cortex upon stimulation by ACTH that mediates metabolic processes, has anti-inflammitory and immunosupressive properties, and levels in the blood elevate in response to physical or psychological stress.
Cretinism a usually congenital abnormal condition marked by physical stunting and mental retardation and caused by severe thyroid deficiency.
Crin/o to secrete.
Diabetes Insipidus disorder that is caused by insufficient secretion of vasopressin by the pituitary gland or by a failure of the kidneys to respond to circulating vasopressin and that is characterized by intense thirst ad secretion of large amounts of urine.
Diabetes Mellitus variable disorder of carbohydrate metabolism caused by a combination of hereditary and environmental factors and characterized by inadequate secretion or utilization of insulin, by excessive urine, excessive sugar in blood and urine, intense thirst.
Dipsia suffix for thirst.
Electrolytes any of the ions that are in biological fluid regulate or affect most metabolic processes (as the flow of nutrients into and waste products out of cells)-used especially in biology and biochemistry.
Endocrine secreting internally; specifically: producing secretions that are distributed in the body by way of the bloodstream.
Epinephrine principle blood-pressure-raising hormone secreted by adrenal medulla, is prepared from adrenal extracts or made synthetically, and is used medicinally especially as a heart stimulant vasoconstrictor (deadly allergic reacitons) and bronchodialator.
Estrogen various natural steriods that are formed from androgen precursors, that are secreted chiefly by the ovaries, placenta, adipose tissue, and testes. Stimulate development of female secondary sex characteristics and promote growth of female reproductive sys.
Exocrine producing, being, or relating to a secretion that is released outside its source.
Exophthalmos abnormal protrusion of the eyeball.
Steroids fasting blood sugar, blood test used to measure the amount of sugar circulating throughout the body.
FSH Follicle-Stimulating Hormone.
Gigantism development to abnormally large size from excessive growth of the long bones accompanied by muscular weakness and sexual impotence and usually caused by hyperpituitarism before normal ossification is complete.
Glands a cell, group of cells, or organ of endothelial origin that selectively removes materials from the blood, concentrates or alters them, and secretes them for further use in the body or for elimination from the body.
Gluc/o glucose
Glucagon a protein hormone that is produced especially by the pancreatic islets of Langerhans and that promotes an increase in the sugar content of the blood by increasing the rate of breakdown of glycogen in the liver.
Glucose an optically active sugar C6H1206 that has an aldehydic carbonyl group
Glyc/o Sugar
Gonad/o sex glands
Growth Hormone a vertebrate polypeptide hormone that is secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and regulates growth.
GTT Glucose Tolerance Test, blood tested used to determine blood sugar level.
Gynecomastia excessive development of the breast in the male.
Home/o sameness
Hypercalcemia the presence of an excess of calcium in the blood.
Hyperglycemia an excess of sugar in the blood.
Hyperinsulinism the presence of excess insulin in the body resulting in hypoglycemia.
Hyperpituitarism excessive production of growth hormones by the pituitary gland.
Hyperthyroidism excessive functional activity of the thyroid gland: resulting condition marked especially by increased metabolic rate, enlargement of the thyroid gland, rapid heart rate, and high blood pressure.
Hypoglycemia abnormal decrease of sugar in the blood.
Hypothyroidism deficient activity of the thyroid gland.
Insulin protein hormone that is synthesized in the pancreas that is essential for the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, that regulates blood sugar levels by facilitating the uptake of glucose into tissues.
Insulinoma a usually benign insulin-secreting tumor of the islets of Langerhans.
Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone a hormone that is secreted which in the female stimulates ovulation and in the male stimulated the secretion of testosterone (also known as lutenizing hormone).
Iod/o iodine
Kal/o potassium
Leptin a peptide hormone that is produced by fat cells and plays a role in body weight regulation by acting on the hypothalamus to suppress appetite and burn fat stored in adipose tissue.
Myxedema severe hypothyroidism characterized by firm inelastic edema, dry skin and hair, and loss of mental and physical vigor.
Natr/o sodium
Norepinephrine chemical means of transmission across synapses in postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system and in some parts of the central nervous system.
Oxytocin a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that stimulated the contraction of uterine muscle and the secretion of milk.
Pancreatitis inflammation of the pancreas.
Parathyroidectomy partial or complete excision of the parathyroid glands.
Phenylketonuria metabolic disorder that is caused by an enzyme deficiency resulting in the accumulation of phenylalanine and its metabolites (as phenylpyruvic acid) in the blood and their excess excretion in the urine.
Polydipsia excessive or abnormal thirst.
Polyphagia excessive appetite or eating.
Polyuria excessive secretion of urine.
Prandial suffix for relating to a meal.
Prediabetes a usually symptomless condition that is marked by somewhat elevated levels of blood sugar and that often progresses to type 2 diabetes.
Pressin suffix for to press down.
Progesterone female steroid sex hormone secreted to prepare the endometrium for implanation and later by the placenta during pregnancy to prevent rejection of the developing embryo or fetus.
Puberty condition of being or the period of becoming first capable of reproducing sexually marked by maturing of the genital organs, development of secondary sex characteristics, and in humans and the higher primates by the first occurrence of menstruation.
RIA Radioimmunoassay blood test that uses radioactively tagged hormones to measure the quantity of hormone in the plasma.
Steroids any of numerous natural or synthetic compounds containing a 17-carbon 4-ring system and including the steriods and various hormones and glycosides.
Testosterone male hormone produced primarily by the testes or made synthetically and that is the main adrogen responsible for inducing and maintaining male secondary sex characteristics.
TFT Thyroid Function Test, blood test used to measure the levels of thyroid hormones in the blood stream.
Thymectomy surgical excision of the thymus.
Thymitis inflammation of the thymus.
Thymosin a mixture of polypeptides isolated from the thymus.
Thyroxine an iodine-containing hormone that is produced by the thyroid gland and increases the metabolic rate, used to treat thyroid disorders.
Tropin suffix for to stimulate.
Created by: Bechristman