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Special Senses

A&P Chapter 17 Dr.Cutler

Somatic Senses Body
Visceral Senses Organs
Special Senses Smell, Taste, Vision, Hearing and Balance
Ophthamology Science of eyes and their disorders
Otolaryngology Science of ears, nose, pharynx, and larynx and their disorders
Chemical Sense Sensations arise from interaction of molecules with smell or taste receptors
Chemical Sense is detected by the Nose or Tongue only when dissolved
Both smell and taste go directly to the Limbic System ('lizard' brain)
Humans can see only Visible light wavelengths 400-700 nm
Accessory Structures of the Eye Eyelids, Eyelashes, Eyebrows, Lacrimal (tear ducts) apparatus, and Extrinsic (outer) eye muscles
Eyelids (Palpebrae) Protect & Lubricate eyes
Palperbral Fissure Opening between the upper and lower eyelids
Eyelashes & Eyebrows Prevents harmful bacteria from getting inside eye
Sty Bacterial infection of sebaceous glands at the base of the eyelashes
Lacrimal Apparatus Structures that produce and drain tears
Extrinsic eye muscles Six muscles that extend from bony orbit, attached to the sclera
Strabismus (Tropia) When one of the eye muscles fails
Lacrimal Fluid Tears
Lacrimal Glands Secrete tears through ducts
Lacrimal Canaliculi Drain tears at medial corner
Nasolacrimal Sac and Duct Drain tears to nasal cavity
Lysozyme Bactericidal enzyme in the lacrimal fluid
3 layers of the Eyeball Fibrous Tunic, Vascular Tunic, and Retina
Fibrous Tunic contains the Sclera and Cornea
Vascular Tunic contains the Choroid, ciliary body and iris
Retina contains the Neural Layer
Choroid Under the Sclera, Promotes Melanin
Ciliary Body Ciliary muscle contracts lens
Iris ('Rainbow') Colored portion of eyeball, lies over lens
Pupil Center hole of the iris
Retina Lines posterior 2/3 of eyeball, begins at Optic Nerve CN II
Optic Disc Optic Nerve exits eye, Blind Spot
Rods and Cones Night Vision and Color
Fovea Centralis Only Cones-Central Focus
Bright Light Pupil Constricts
Dim Light Pupil Dilates
Blind Spot Optic Disc
Night Blindness Loss of Rods at periphery of retina
Crystallin Proteins Focus light onto the retina
Cataracts Mutation to the crystallin proteins
Aqueous Humor (Front) Fills anterior cavity in front of lens
Glaucoma occurs in the Aqueous Humor
Vitreous Humor (Back) Fills posterior cavity behind lens
Vitreous body Jellylike substance that hold retina against the choroid
Intraocular Pressure Produced by humors, maintains eyeshape
Too much pressure in the Aqueous Humor Glaucoma
Accommodation Fewing objects closer than 20 feet
Convergence Eyeballs move medially
Rhodopsin are in Rods
Retinal are in Cones
Pigments for Rods Rhodopsin
Pigments for Cones Retinal
3 Main Regions of the Ear Outer, Middle and Inner Ear
Outer Ear Tunnel that collects and channels sound waves
Middle Ear Lever System that amplifies sound waves in the ear canal by 20x
Inner Ear Convert sound waves to electricity and send it to brain for interpretation
Auricle (pinna) Visible ear that channels sound in the outer ear
Tympanic Membrane (Eardrum) Thin, strong round sheet that vibrates in response to incoming sound waves
Ossicles Malleus, Incus, and Stapes
Oval Window Separates middle from inner ear at stapes
Auditory Tube Runs to the Nasopharynx, Permits equalizing of air pressure between nasal cavity and middle ear during swallowing
Middle Ear is filled with what Air
Muscles in the Middle Ear Tensor Tympani and Stapedius
Tensor Tympani Protects inner ear from loud noises by decreasing vibration in the eardrum
Stapedius Decreases movement of stapes on the oval window
Bony Labyrinth (outer shell) Filled with perilymph
Membranous Labyrinth (inner shell) Fiilled with endolymph
Vestibule function Balance
Utricle Little Bag for balance
Saccule Little Sac for balance
Semicircular Canals function Balance in 3 different planes
Ampulla Enlargement at the bottom of each semicircular canal
Cohlea 'Snail Tail', used to hear
Cochlear ducts are filled with Endolymph
Inner Ear Hearing Organs Cochlear Ducts
Basilar Membrane Inside Cochlear ducts
Tectorial Membrane Covers hair cells and transmit vibrations from lymph
Hair Cells Transmit vibrations of tectorial membrane
Static equilibrium in the Vestibule Maintain the body position relative to Gravity
Dynamic Equilibrium int he Semi-Circular Canals Maintain the body position despite sudden movements
Created by: delainaxrepola
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