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Brain/Cranial Nerves

A&P Chapter 14 Dr.Cutler

Cerebrum Outer region of gray matter, "bark"
Gyri Folds (convolutions)
Sulci Shallow grooves in the folds
Fissures Deep grooves in the folds
Longitudinal Fissure Separates right and left cerebrii into cerebral hemispheres
Corpus Callosum Bundle of white, myelinated axons that connects the two cerebral hemispheres
Lobes in the Cerebrum Frontal, Parietal, Occipital and Temporal
Lobes are named after what The bones that cover them
Central Sulcus Separates frontal lobe from parietal lobe
Postcentral Gyrus Just after the central sulcus, primary sensory cortex
Precentral Gyrus Just before the central sulcus, primary motor cortex
Insula Lobe which is interior and cannot be seen on brain surface
Olfactory Sense of smell
Optic Sensory for vision
Oculomotor Motor for light accommodation
Trochlear Motor for eye movement
Trigeminal Sensory for face & head; Motor for mastication
Abducens Motor for eye movement
Facial Motor for facial expression; sensory for taste
Vestibulocochlear Sensory for hearing and balance
Glossopharyngeal Sensory for taste; motor for swallowing & saliva
Vagus Sensory for thoracic & abdominal organs; motor for speaking, gagging & swallowing
Accessory Motor for head turn (SCM) and shoulder shrug
Hypoglossal Motor for tongue
Adult Brain Structures Telencephalon, Diencephalon, Mescencephalon, Metencephalon, and Myelencephalon
4 Major Parts of the Brain Brain stem, Cerebellum, Diencephalon, Cerebrum
Brain Stem Continuous with spinal cord; Medulla Oblongata, Pons and Midbrain
Cerebellum "Little Brain" for balance
Diencephalon Relay and Reaction center; Thalamus, Hypothalamus, and Epithalamus
Cerebrum Largest part of your brain
Meninges Protect brain and spinal cord from mechanical injury and support dural sinuses that drain blood from head to heart
Blood flows to the brain mainly through the what Internal carotid artery and vertebral artery
Brain eats what percent of the body's oxygen 20%
Blood drains away from the brain into the what Dural venous sinuses
Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) Highly selective permeable barrier
Cerebrospinal Fluid Clear, watery fluid in and around the brain and spinal cord
Ventricles CFS-filled cavities within the brain
4 Ventricles 2 laterals, 3rd and 4th Ventricles
Pyramids Visible bulges on the anterior portion of the medulla oblongata
Medulla Oblongata Cardiovascular center regulates rate and force of heartbeat
Medullary respiratory center adjusts the basic rhythm for Breathing
The brain stem controlls what Vomitting and sneezing
Structures of the Medulla Oblongata Pons, pyramids and site of decussation (Male pregnant seahorse)
Alcohol overdose suppressess the what? Medullary Respiratory Center
Pons The 'bridge' that connects parts of the brain with other parts, directly above medulla and extends to the midbrain, has the pontine respiratory group
Midbrain Mesencephalon (middle), substantia nigra
Substantia Nigra Contains neurons that release dopamine
Reticular Formation Broad region of white and gray matter throughout brainstem
Responsible for consciousness and awakenign from sleep and maintains attention Reticular Formation
Reticular Activating System (RAS) Regulates the shift between sleep and wakefulness; detects visual, auditory, pain touch, and pressure
Cerebellum 1/10th the size of the cerebrum; evaluates movement; regulates posture and balance
Ataxia Lack of balance, 'drunk test'
Arbor vitae 'Tree of Life', tracts of white matter that look like a tree
Diencephalon Thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, and 3rd ventricle
Diencephalon includes the what Pituitary gland
Sensory and motor processing between higher and lower brain centers Diencephalon
Thalamus 'Inner Chamber'; relay station for sensory impulses that reach the brain
Hypothalamus Under the thalamus, regulates homeostasis, controls Autonomic Nervous System
Infundibulum Stalk that connects the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus
The hypothalamus controls what Releasing hormones; Rage, agression, pain, pleasure and sexual arousal; Eating and drinking; Body temperature; Circadian rhythms and states of consciousness
HPA Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis; Regulates hormones secreted by other glands, such as thyroid and adrenal glands
Epithalamus Just about the thalamus; Contains the pineal gland
Pineal Gland Pinecone shape, forms roof of 3rd Ventricle, secretes melatonin to promote sleepiness
Created by: delainaxrepola