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Nervous System

A&P Chapter 12 Dr.Cutler

QuestionAnswer
Nervous System keeps what? Controlled conditions within limits that maintain life
The nervous system uses what? Nerve impulses to respond to change
What is the nervous systems counterpoint? The endocrine system (hormones)
The nervous system initates what? All voluntary movement
What is Neurology? The normal function and disorders of the nervous system
What do Neurologists do? Diagnosis and treat all Nervous System disorders
What are the 2 different Nervous Systems? Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
The CNS is only connected to the what? The brain and spinal cord
What is the PNS connected to? All the nervous tissue outside of the brain and the spinal cord
The CNS processes incoming what? Sensory Information
What is the source of thoughts, emotions and memories and the origin of impulses to muscles and glands? The Central Nervous System
Sensory In and Motor Out refers to what nervous system? Central Nervous System
The 3 components of the PNS Nerves, Ganglia, and Enteric Plexus (guts)
The 2 divisions of the PNS Somatic Division and the Autonomic Division
Nerves in the PNS are what? Bundles of axons outside the brain or spinal cord that transmit electrical impulses to and from the brain
How many pairs of Cranial Nerves are in the PNS? 12 pairs
How many pairs of Spinal Nerves are in the PNS? 31 pairs
Ganglia in the PNS are what? Neuron cell bodies that are small masses of nerve cell tissue outside the brain and spinal cord
Where are the ganglia closely tied to? Cranial and spinal nerve pairs
Enteric Plexus in the PNS are what? Networks/bundles of neurons in the walls of the GI tract to regulate digestion
The Enteric Nervous System is what? Its own system
Somatic does what? Controls the body and is voluntary
Autonomic does what? Controls involuntary functions like sweating, heartbeat, and fight or flight response
Motor Neurons in the Somatic Nervous System do what? Conduct impulses from CNS to skeletal muscles
Sensory Neurons in the Somatic Nervous System do what? Conduct senses from the head, body and limbs to the CNS
The sensory division in the Autonomic Nervous System are what? Receptors in viscera (organs)
The motor division in the Autonomic Nervous System are what? Neurons to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
The 2 divisons of the Motor Divison in the Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
Sympathetic Fight, freeze, or flight
Parasympathetic Rest and digest
The Enteric Nervous System is the what? The brain of the gut
What does the Enteric Plexuses monitor? Stretching and chemical changes in the GI tract
Enteric motor neurons govern what? GI contraction and controls secretions
What are the functions of the Nervous System? Sensory, Integrative, and Motor
The sensory function in the Nervous System are what? Affectors to the brain and spinal cord that detect internal and external stimuli
The integrative function in the Nervous System do what? Process sensory and make appropriate decision
The motor function in the Nervous System are what? Effectors to muscles and glands that cause contraction or secretion
Cell Types on the Nervous System Neurons and Neuroglia
Neurons are Functional units of the nervous system
Neuroglia Greatly outnumber neurons, the "glue" that supports and maintains the neuronal networks
Neurons use what? Action Potential that help electrical excitability
3 parts of a Neuron Cell body, Dendrites, and Axon
The cell body is the what? Command center
The cell body contains what? The nucleus and organelles, neurofibrils, microtubules, Nissle bodies (RER)
The dendrites is the what? Receiver
The dendrites receive what? Input from outside the nerve
The axon is the what? Messenger
The axons does what? Propagates nerve impulses towards another neuron, the motor end plate of a muscle fiber, or towards a gland cell
What is the end of an axon? Synaptic Terminal
The Synapse is what? The site of communication between two neurons or between neuron and an effector cell
The 3 parts of the Synapse Synaptic Terminal, Synaptic Vesicles and Neurotransmitter
The Synaptic Terminal is the what? End of the axon terminal
The Synaptic Vesicles contain what? The neurotransmitter chemicals
The Neurotransmitter does what? Excites or Inhibits another neuron
Presynaptic Cell The giver of information that ends at the synaptic bulb
Presynaptic cell releases what into the synaptic cleft? Neurotransmitter
Postsynaptic Cell The receiver of information that has receptors for neurotransmitter
Calcium enters what cell? Presynaptic Cell
Sodium enters what cell when ACh bonds to receptors? Postsynaptic Cell
The functional classes of neurons Sensory, Motor and Interneuron
Sensory Neurons are Afferent
Motor Neurons are Efferent
Interneuron Neurons does what? Processes information between sensory and motor neurons in spine
Myelination is what? A sheath that electrically insulates the axons of the neurons
Nodes of Ravier are what? Gaps in the myelin sheath of PNS axons
Saltatory Conduction does what? Increases conduction velocity due to exhange of ions and regeneration of signal at each node
Neuroglia makes up half of what? The CNS
Neuroglia can do what? Multiply and Divide
Neuroglia support what? Neurons with nutrients
Astrocytes form what? The blood brain barrier (BBB)
Oligodendrocytes form and maintain what? Myelin sheath on CNS axons
The myelin sheath is what? Fat and protein covering around the axons
Microglia do what? Removes cell debris
Ependymal cells do what? Produce cerebrospinal fluid in brain ventricles and spinal canal
Schwann cells Form the myelin Sheath around PNS axons
The CNS has what cells? Astrocytes, Oligodendrocytes, Microglia and Ependymal Cells
The PNS has what cells? Schwanna Cells
Ganglion A cluster of nerve cell bodies in the PNS
Nucleus A cluster of nerve cell bodies in the CNS
Nerves A bundle of axons located in the PNS
Tract A cluster of axons in the CNS
Gray Matter Covers the largest portions of the brain
White Matter Myelinated axons
Upper Motor Neuron Injury Not Fixable, motor neuron in the brain or spinal cord, no myelin sheath
Lower Motor Neuron Injury Fixable, motor neuron in the cranial or spinal nerves, has myelin sheath
Membrane Potentials An electrical voltage difference between the inside and outside of a cell membrane
What are the types of potentials? Resting membrane potential, graded potentials, and action potentials
Graded potentials Summaries of Strength
Action potentials All or none firing of signal
Resting Membrane Potential Small buildup of negative ions and equal buildup of positive ions
2 types of polarization Hyperpolarized and depolarized
Hyperpolarized Cell membrane more negative inside, will not fire an action potential
Depolarized Cell membrane more positive inside, will fire an action potential
4 different types Membrane Receptors Photoreceptors, Auditory hair cells, Mechanoreceptors, Olfactory and taste receptors
Graded Potentials Happens at the dendrites and cell body of a neuron
Summation Add graded potentials together
4 important ions Sodium, Potassium, Chloride and Calcium
Sodium Much higher outside cell
Potassium Mucher higher inside cell
Chloride Low inside cell, resting negative state
Calcium Low inside cell, excitatory state
Impulse conduction Conducts a nerve impulse along its axon and responds by releasing neurotransmitters
Neurons connect to 3 things: Another neuron, muscle, and gland
Action Potentials are A message to another nerve, muscle, or gland
6 Steps of an Action Potential Rest, Depolarizing, Propagation, Repolarizing, Sodium/Potassium Pump, Refractory
Saltatory conduction Fast, long distances, nodes of ranvier and myelinated axons only
Unmyelinated Continuous conduction
Myelinated Saltatory conduction
Factors affecting Propagation Speed Amount of myelination, Axon diameter and temperature
3 Nerve Fiber Classes A fibers, B fibers, and C fibers
A fibers Largest, Myelinated, Fastest, Deep pressure/vibration
B fibers Middle Sized, Autonomic motor neurons
C fibers Smallest, Slowest, Unmyelinated, Noxious pain
Hormones Messenger chemicals that have an effect far from the cell that released it, long term effects, heads toward target cells
Neurotransmitters Vesicles dock and fuse with membrane, short and fact effect, and can be excitatory or inhibitory
3 Neurotransmitter Clearances Diffusion, Enzymatic Degradion, Re-uptake by cells
Created by: delainaxrepola