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Nerves:Spinal Cord

A&P Chapter 13 Dr.Cutler

What is the Spinal Cord? Part of the Central Nervous System that extends from the brain
What does the Spinal Cord contain? Bundles of sensory and motor tracts going to and from the brain
Sensory input to the brain is what? Afferent
Motor output to the skeletal muscles and glands is what? Efferent (exit)
Motor output to smooth and cardiac muscles (autonomic) is what? Efferent (exit)
What is attached to the Spinal Cord? Spinal nerves and cranial nerves
What do the spinal nerves and cranial nerves do? They carry the sensory and motor messages to the body
What does the Spinal Cord react to? Environmental changes
What are the 3 cord protective structures? Vertebral column, Cerebrospinal Fluid, and Meninges
Vertebral Column Vertebral foramina stacked on top of one another that forms a vertebral canal for protecting the spinal cord
Cerebrospinal Fluid Buoyant liquid that suspends Central Nervous System tissue in weightless environment and acts as a shock absorber
Meninges Protective tissue coverings around spinal cord and brain
The 3 Meninges Dura Mater, Arachnoid Mater, and Pia Mater
Dura Mater "Tough Mother", Superficial, Epidural given here
Epidural Space Cushion of fat and connective tissue between the dura mater and wall of bony vertebral canal
Arachnoid Mater "Spider Mother", Middle layer, Subarachnoid Space
Subarachnoid Space Holds cerebrospinal fluid
Pia Mater "Delicate Mother", Innermost layer, Directly on the Spinal Cord and Brain, Denticulate Ligaments
Denticulate Ligaments Lateral, tooth-like projections that tether Spinal Cord to the Dura Mater
Spinal Cord External Anatomy Extends from the Medulla Oblongata of the brain to the superior border of the Second Lumbar Vertebra (L2)
How long is the Second Lumbar Vertebra? 18 inches long
Cervical Enlargment Upper limb nerve exits
Lumbar Enlargement Lower limb nerve exits
Conus Medullaris Tapered end of cord at the L2
Filum Terminale Anchors the spinal cord to the coccyx
The Filum Terminale is an extension of what? Pia Mater
Cauda Equina "Horse Tail" of lower extremity nerves that begin at the Lumbar Enlargement
Spinal Tap/Lumbar Puncture Long Needle thats inserted into the Subarachnoid Space
Purpose of the Spinal Tap/Lumbar Puncture Withdraw Cerebrospinal Fluid, Contrast medium for Imaging, Adminstration site for Anesthetic
Where do you insert the needle for a Spinal Tap/Lumbar Puncture on an Adult? L3/L4 or L4/L5
What do Spinal Nerves do? Communicate between body and spinal cord
How many pairs of Spinal Nerves are there? 31 Pairs
How many pairs of Cervical Nerves are there? 1-8 pairs
How many pairs of Thoracic Nervesn are there? 1-12 pairs
How many pairs of Lumbar Nerves are there? 1-5 pairs
How many pairs of Coccyx Nerves are there? 1 pair
The Cauda Equina has? Free floating nerve roots of lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerves that extend to the lower extremities
Where does the Cauda Equina start? The Lumbar Enlargement and hangs downward
Where does the Cauda Equina float? In the Cerebrospinal Fluid
What are Rootlets? Small bundles of Axons that make up Roots
What do the Spinal Nerve Roots connect? Nerve to Cord
What are the 2 different kind of Roots? Doral and Ventral
Dorsal Roots Sensory Axons from skin, muscles, and internal organs
Dorsal Roots contain what? Cell bodies of the Sensory Neurons
Where do Dorsal Roots start and end? Start at the Periphery (PNS) and end at the Cord
Ventral Roots Motor Axons to Effectors (muscles and glands)
Where do Ventral Roots start and end? Start at the Cord (CNS) and end in the Periphery
The Interal Anatomy of the Spinal Cord Central Canal, Anterior Median Fissure and Posterior Median Sulcus, Horns of Gray Matter, Columns and Tracts of White Matter
Central Canal Holds Cerebrospinal Fluid
Anterior Median Fissure and Posterior Median Sulcus Divides the cord into left and right halves
Horns of Gray Matter Dorsal, Lateral and Ventral horn
Dorsal Horn Sensory In
Lateral Horn Motor to Organs (autonomic)
Ventral Horn Motor Out
Columns and Tracts of White Matter contain Myelinated Axons in bundles called tracts that travel up and down the cord carrying information to and from the brain
What information travels in the Spinal Cord? Sensory and Motor Information
Sensory Information travels where and how? To the brain inside Ascending Tracts of Axons GOING UP & IN
Motor Information travels where and how? From the brain or spinal cord in Descending Tracts of Axons GOING DOWN & OUT
Sensory Receptors in the skin detect Stimulus
Where do the nerve impulse travel to? Dorsal Branch of Spinal Nerve
Where do the nerve impulses enter? The Dorsal Horn of Gray Matter
What do the Interneurons connect to? Sensory to Motor
What is an example of a voluntary response? When either message will ascend to the brain along the white matter tract
What is an example of a reflexive response? When either message will skip the brain and go directly back out if required
Spinal Nerves are named according to what? Where they emerge from cord, cervical plexus, or lumbar plexus
Spinal Nerves enter with what? Sensory information at Dorsal Horn of cord
Spinal Nerves exit with what? Motor information at Ventral Horn of cord
All Spinal Nerves are what? Mixed
What do all Spinal Nerves contain? Sensory and motor axons (mixed nerves) after they merge roots
What are the 3 enlargements at the cervical and lumbar exits for the arms and legs? Cervical Plexus, Brachial Plexus, and Lumbosacral Plexus
Nerves that do not form a plexus Thoracic
What nerves run individually between each rib (intercostal)? Intercostal Thoracic Nerves
Roots between T2-T12 that do not form plexuses Ventral Roots
Why are they called Intercostal Thoracic Nerves? Each spinal nerve between T2 and T12 travels between the ribs
Where is the Cervical Plexus located? In the Head and Neck
Where do the Cervical Plexus supply to? The skin and muscles of head, neck and upper shoulders
The Cervical Plexus innervates the what? Diaphragm
C3, C4, C5 has what nerve? The Phernic Nerve
What Cervical Plexuses keep the diaphragm alive? C3, C4, and C5
Where is the Brachial Plexus located? In the Arms and Hands
Where do the Brachial Plexus supply to? The upper limbs and several neck and shoulder muscles
MARMU nerves Musculocutaneous, Axillary, Radial, Median and Ulnar Nerves
What are the 3 terminal branches of the Brachial Plexus? Radial Nerve, Median Nerve and Ulnar Nerve
Where is the Radial Nerve? Innervates the back of the arm (triceps and forearm extensors) and the back of the hand
Where is the Median Nerve? Forearm flexors and thumb to middle finger
Where is the Ulnar Nerve? Ring finger and little finger plus the hand muscles
Where is the Lumbar Plexus located? Front of Thigh
Where do the Lumbar Plexus supply to? The abdominal wall, external genitals and part of lower limb
What the main nerve in the Lumbar Plexus? Femoral Nerve
Where is the Fermoral Nerve? In the front of the thigh
What is the largest nerve of the Lumbar Plexus? The Fermoral Nerve
Where is the Sacral Plexus located? The Buttocks and most of the leg
What nerve is in the Sacral Plexus? The Sciatic Nerve
Sciatic Nerve in the back Pain through the lower back and down the leg, to the foot
Cervical Nerves C1-C2
Thoracic Nerves T1-T12
Lumbar Nerves L1-L6
Sacral Nerves S1-S5
Coccygeal Nerve C0
Created by: delainaxrepola



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