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HSF II Cardio IV

Perfusion when blood flows through vasculature down a pressure gradient
Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) standard measure of the perfusion pressure gradient, what causes the blood to flow and the tissues to be adequately perfused, regulated by cardiac reflexes
Cardiac Reflexes neural and hormonal, short and long term, effectors are heart, vasculature, and blood
Cardiac Output (CO) measure of the work of the heart as a pump, volume of blood from a ventricle in 1 minute, CO = SV x HR, therefore, your whole blood volume goes through the heart in 1min
Cardiac Reserve limits of how much the CO can change to accommodate changing demands. Difference between normal resting CO and a maximal CO, normal 300-400%
Chronotropic change the heart rate
Inotropic change the contractility of the myocardium i.e. strength of contraction
Parasympathetic innervation SA and AV nodes, Cranial nerve X/vagus nerve, pacemaker cells in intrinsic conducting system. ACh, negative chronotropic effect
Sympathetic innervation SA and AV nodes, and contractile cardiomyocytes
Parasympathetic mechanism ACh affect slope of prepotential in pacemaker cells. muscarinic M1 receptors, let out K+ and prevent Ca++ and Na+ in.
Sympathetic mechanism NE affect slope of prepotential of pacemaker cardiomyocytes, B1 receptors of autorhythmic cells, increase Na+ and Ca++ influx, increase rate of depolarization
Epinephrine on B1 receptors sympathetic innervation, increases cytostolic Ca++ levels, increase Ca++ binding to troponin for increased crossbridges, increased contractility
Autonomic Tone continuous activity of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems and the level of activity at a given rate of firing
Perfusion occurs as blood flows through the vasculature down a pressure gradient
Elastic Arteries maintain pressure produced during ventricular systole when the heart is not contracting. Diastolic pressure comes from elastic recoil
Muscular Arteries conducting vessels, non-compliant that move blood toward other tissues ASAP
Skeletal Muscle Pump contraction of skeletal muscle pushes blood back toward the heart
Venous valves prevent backflow
3 Factors on Resistance blood viscosity, vessel length, vessel radius
Baroreceptors carotid and aortic sinus, detect blood pressure/stretch, neural reflex arc. Sinuses are embedded in the smooth muscle of the artery, elastic arteries
Carotid Sinus afferent pathway, visceral sensory NIX, in bifurcation of the carotid artery
Aortic Sinus afferent pathway, visceral sensory NX, aortic arch
Medulla Oblongata integrator of NIX/NX afferent fibers from baroreceptors. Has Cardiac control center CAC, CIC, VMC
Cardiac Control Center CAC (cardiac accelerator center, symp), CIC (cardiac inhibitor center, parasymp), VMC (vasomotor center, symp)
CAC cardiac accelerator center, sympathetic efferent, innervate peripherally to the heart and blood vessels
CAC Sympathetic Efferent Innervation pass peripherally to innervate the heart and blood vessels
Cardiac Sympathetic Innervation pacemaker and contractile cardiomyocytes, positive chronotropic and inotropic effects
VMC Sympathetic Efferent Innervation pass peripherally to innervate blood vessels, arterioles and media of veins
CIC Parasympathetic Innvervation innervate the intrinsic conduction system, has negative chronotropic and limited negative inotropic effects. Decrease CO
Chemoreceptors (carotid and aortic bodies), detect decreased O2 and increased CO2 and decreased pH
+Chronotropic Hormones EP, NEP, thyroid hormones via effects on the SA node, increase HR
+Inotropic Hormones EP, NEP, thyroid hormones, glucagon, increase SV
Hormones that regulate CV Function EP and NEP
Hormones that affect CV Function thyroid hormones and glucagon
Baro-and Chemoreceptor Reflexes on decreased MAP rapid and short-term responses
Hormonal Reflexes on decreased MAP short- and long term responses
RAAS renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, activation increases MAP, working together in kidneys, body's most important short and long term endocrine blood pressure regulation system
Two Basic Mechanisms for Regulating Blood Pressure short-term: regulate blood vessel diameter, HR, and contractility. Long-term: regulate blood volume
Juxtaglomerular Apparatus in kidney, source of renin, made of macula densa and JG (granular cells
Macula Densa in juxtaglomerular apparatus, detect changes in MAP
JG Cells in arterioles of juxtaglomerular apparatus, secrete renin in response to decreased MAP
Stimuli that increase Renin secretion All indicative of decreased MAP: 1. decreased MAP or blood volume, 2. decreased Na+ in filtrate, 3. decreased flow of filtrate, 4. increased sympathetic stimulation.
Created by: connorquinby



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