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Medical Terms Vocab for week 2

TermDefinition
Homeostasis a state of equilibrium that is maintained within the body's internal environment.
Atom is the smallest, most basic chemical unit of an element. It consists of a nucleus that contains protons and neutrons and is surrounded by electrons.
Proton is a positively charged particle
Neutron is without any electrical charge
Electron is a negatively charged particle that revolves around the nucleus of an atom
Chemical Elements are made up of atoms, which can be classified on the basis of their atomic number into groups called elements
Element is a substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means into any other substance
Molecule is a chemical combination of two or more atoms that form a specific chemical compound
Water is a tasteless, clear, odorless liquid that makes up 65% of a male’s body weight and 55% of a female’s body weight. Water is the most important constituent of all body fluids, secretions, and excretions.
Cells are considered the basic building blocks for the various structures that together make up a human being
Cell Membrane The outer covering of the cell. Cell membranes have the capability of allowing some substances to pass into and out of the cell while denying passage to other substances
Cytoplasm is the substance between the cell membrane and the nuclear membrane. It is a jellylike material that is mostly water. The cytoplasm provides storage and work areas for the cell
Nucleus is responsible for the cell’s metabolism, growth, and reproduction. It is the central portion of the cell that contains the chromosomes
Chromosomes microscopic bodies that carry the genes that determine hereditary characteristics
Gemome is the complete set of genes and chromosomes tucked inside each of the body’s trillions of cells
Stem Cells are the precursors of all body cells. Stem cells have three general properties: They are capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods, they are unspecialized, and they can give rise to specialized cell types
In vitro An embryonic cell is an unspecialized cell that can turn itself into any type of tissue. Embryonic stem cellsare derived primarily from frozen in vitro (in glass, as in a test tube) fertilized embryos.
Regenerative or Reparative Medicine Highly plastic adult stem cells from a variety of sources, including umbilical cord blood and bone marrow, are used in medical therapies, which are often referred to as regenerative or reparative medicine.
Tissue is a grouping of similar cells that together perform specialized functions. There are four basic types of tissue in the body: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nerve.
Epithelial tissue appears as sheetlike arrangements of cells, sometimes several layers thick, that form the outer surfaces of the body and line the body cavities and the principal tubes and passageways leading to the exterior
Connective Tissue The most widespread and abundant of the body tissues, connective tissue forms the supporting network for the organs of the body, sheaths the muscles, and connects muscles to bones and bones to joints. Bone is a dense form of connective tissue.
Skeletal muscle or voluntary muscle is striated in appearance and is anchored by tendons to bone. They are used to effect skeletal movement such as locomotion and in maintaining posture
Smooth muscle or involuntary muscle is found within the walls of organs and structures such as the esophagus, stomach, intestines, bronchi, uterus, urethra, bladder, blood vessels, and the arrector pili in the skin.
Cardiac muscle is also an involuntary muscle and is a specialized form of striated tissue found only in the heart. Cardiac muscle is under the control of the autonomic nervous system.
Nerve tissue consists of nerve cells (neurons) and supporting cells called neuroglia. It has the properties of excitability and conductivity and functions to control and coordinate the activities of the body
Organs Multiple different tissues serving a common purpose or function make up structures called organs. Examples are the brain, skin, or heart.
System A group of different organs functioning together for a common purpose is called a system. The various body systems function in support of the body as a whole.
Created by: timelissa71511