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Lab Instrumentation1

Exam 1

3 factors that contribute to the cost of automation maintenance, personnel training, analyzer cost
lab characteristics used to justify the cost of automation lab size, workflow, specimen volume, safety advantages
Ordering automation electronic orders, standing orders, generated bar-codes with important patient info
Transportation automation P-tube, track systems
Receiving automation LIS
Reporting results automation can go directly into clinician electronically, results can go to medical records to be apart of patients chart
Maintenance of quality across all aspects of the testing process quality assurance
purpose of quality assurance to evaluate the system and prevent errors
Which phase of testing accounts for the most laboratory error and why Pre-analytical because there's less automation for this and we see an increase with human error
What is the purpose of quality control material provides us with insight on how the analyzers are functioning and the accuracy of the test results
why liquid QC over lyophilized more stable and decreases pipetting errors during reconstitution
analyzed by the manufacturer so the concentration of the analyses they contain is known assayed QC
concentration of the analyses is unknown and must be determined by the lab unassayed QC
When is it necessary to repeat QC material maintenance is done, something is suspected to be wrong, reagent lot change, major component replacement
A sudden change due to an analyzer malfunction shift
a gradual change due to reagent deterioration drift
What steps do you need to take in evaluating a failed QC run rerun once, ask questions, contact service technician if problem is not resolved
concentration of a substance is proportional to the amount of light absorbed beers law
measures the intensity of light at selected wavelength absorbance spectrophotometry
two factors that quantitative measurement using absorbance spectrophotometry depend on color, intensity of the color
examples of monochromator in modern technology filters, prism, grating
two types of photoelectric cells barrier layer cell, photomultiplier tubes
measure light reflected from the surface of a colorimetric reaction reflectance spectrophotometry
Name the layers in dry-slide technology spreading, scavenger, reagent, indicator, support layer, spectrophotometer
sample is distributed evenly spreading layer
filters out substances that could interfere with results scavenger layer
reagent reacts with sample reagent layer
reacted sample collects for spectral analysis indicator layer
optical interface support
measures the absorption of light by an element in its ground state atomic absorption spectrometry
example of a lab test performed using atomic absorption spectrometry determining blood lead levels
Valence electrons from some substances are able to absorb light energy, exciting the electron, electron returns to ground state and gives up energy as a photon of light which results in a fluorescence emission fluorometry
compounds that can re-emit light upon excitation; produces color in testing fluorochromes/fluorophores
commonly used fluorescent dye in the lab fluorescein isothiocyanate (green)
two ways light scatter is measured turbidimetry, nephelometry
Which form of light scatter is more sensitive nephelometry because more light is scattered than transmitted
the measurement of the reduction of light transmitted through a solution caused by particle formation turbidimetry
test done by turbidimetry PT/INR; clot formation
the measurement of scattered light by a particulate solution nephelometry
lab test performed by nephelometry antibody-antigen reactions (rheumatoid factor)
impedance-based technology that is used to analyze cells flow cytometry
Four main component of a flow cell cytometer cells, illumination, fluidics, detectors/electronics
sample cell suspension is injected into the center of a rapidly flowing stream to pass the sample through the analysis point one at a time hydrodynamic focusing
what is forward scatter lenses collect light and focus it on a photodiode and the light is converted to electrical current; measures cell size
what is side scatter uses wavelength-specific mirrors and filters to transmit light specific to the wavelength of the dye that is used; measures cell complexity
lab test performed by flow cytometry immunophenotyping cells
radiation detector that counts radioactive labels scintillation counter
disadvantages of RIA lot of radioactive waste, short shelf life of radioactive isotopes
what replaced RIA Chemiluminescence
what are immunoassays used to measure antibody-antigen reactions
liquid phase and require no wash step, competitive format homogenous assay
has solid phase, requires a wash step and can be competitive or non heterogenous assay
3 categories of immunoassay labels enzymes, fluorogens, chemiluminescent
What are the two main classifications of radiation ionizing and non
examples of ionizing radiation microwave and radio
examples of non-ionizing radiation x-rays and gamma
difference btwn electromagnetic radiation and particulate radiation electromagnetic carries no charge while particulate are charged particles (alpha and beta)
what makes an atom radioactive unbalanced protons and neutrons = unstable nucleus
Three types of decay an atom can undergo alpha, beta, gamma
unstable nucleus gives up 2 protons and 2 neutrons which leads to an atomic mass and number change alpha
ejects and electron, converting a neutron to a proton which leads to an atomic number change but the same mass beta
what would stop alpha radiation paper
what would stop beta radiation block of wood
what would stop gamma radiation lead
what type of radiation is emitted from a patient undergoing testing in nuclear medicine gamma
four examples of how we use radiation in the clinical lab radioimmunoassays, x-rays, MRI, CT
what assay is used in the echo analyzer capture assay
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