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SSCT Intro to A&P.

SSCT Intro to Anantomy & Physiology Ch. 3

QuestionAnswer
Four Major types of Tissues Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nervous
Stages of Mitosis prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) chemical compound that provides energy for use by body cells
Apoptosis cell death by means of several biochemical processes built into each cell; clears space for newer cells, as in early embryonic development or in tissue repair
Centromere a breadlike strructure that attaches one chromatoid to another during the early stages of mitosis
Chondrocytes cartilage cell
Chromotid a chromosome strand
Chromatin staining subtance in the nucleas of cells, divides into chromosomes during mitosis
Chromosome DNA molecule that has coiled to form a compact mass during mitosis or meiosis; each is compose of genes which transmit hereditary information
Cleavage furrow depression in the parent cell surface during cell division; it appears at the end of anaphase and begins to divide the cell into two daughter cells
Collagen principle organic constituent of connective tissue
Crenation abdnormal notching in an erythrocyte resulting from shrinkage aftr suspension in a hypertonic solution
Cytoplasm gel like substance of a cell exclusive of the nucleas and other organelles
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) genetic material of th cell that carries the chemical "blueprint" of the body
Gene one of many segments of a chromosome(DNA molecule); each gene contains the genetic code for synthesizing a protein molecule such as an enzyme or hormone
Genome entire set of chromosomes in a cell
Glia supporting cells of nervous tissue, also called neuroglia
Goblet Cell specialized cells found in simpler columnar epithelium that produce mucus
Hypertonic a solution containing a higher level of salt than is found in a living red blood cell
Hypotonic a solution containing a lower level of salt than is found in a living red blood cell
Interphase the phase immediately before the visible stages of cell division when the DNA of each chromosome replicates itself
Interstital fluid fluid located in the microscopic spaces between the cells
Lyse disintegration of a cell
Matrix the intracellular substance of a tissue; i.e. bone is calcified, blood is liquid
Messenger RNA (mRNA) a duplicate copy of a gene sequence on the DNA that passes from the nucleas to the cytoplasm
Mitosis indirect cell division involving complex changes in the nucleas
Prophase 1st - first stage of mitosis during which chromosomes become visible
Metaphase 2nd - second stage of mitosis, during which the muclear envelope and nucleolus disappear
Anaphase 3rd - stage of mitosis; duplicate chromosomes move to poles of dividing cells
Telophase 4th- last stage of mitosis in which the cell divides
Neuron electrically neutral particle within the nucleas of an atom
Axon nerve cell process that transmits impulses away from the cell body
Dendrite branching or treelike; a nerve cell process that tranmits impulses toward the body
Nucleolus critical to protein formation because it "programs" the formation of ribosomes in the nucleas
Nucleoplasm a special type of cytoplasm found in the nucleus
Organelle cell organ; i.e. the ribosome
Centriole one of a pair of tiny cylinders in the centrosome of a cell; believed to be involved with the spindle fibers formed during mitosis
Cilia hairlike projections of cells
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) network of tubules and vesicles in cytoplasm
Flagellum single projection extending from the cell surface; only example in humans is the "tail" of the tale sperm
Golgi Apparatus small sacs stacked on one another near the nucleas that makes carbohydrate compounds, combines them with protein molecules, and packages the product in a globule
Lysosome membranous organelles containing various enzymes that can dissolve most cellular compounds;
Mitochondria threadlike structures
Nucleus spherical structure within a cell
Plasma Membrane membrane that separates the contest of a cell from the tissue fluid
Ribosome organelle in the cytoplasm of cells that synthezes proteins; also know as protein factory
Osteon structural unit of compact bone tissue made up of concentric layers of hard bone matrix and bone cells aka haversian system
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) a nucleic acid found in the cytoplasm that is crucial to protein synthesis
Sodium-potassium pump a system of coupled ion pumps that actively transports sodium ions out of a cell and potassium ions into the cell at the same time-found in all living cells
Spindle Fiber a network of tubules formed in the cytoplasm between the centrioles as they are moving away from each other
Tissue group of similar cells that perform a common function
Adipose fat tissue
Areolar small space; the pigmented ring around the nipple
Columnar shape in which cells are taller than they are wide
Cuboidal cell shape resembling a cube
Hematopoietic specialized connective tissue that is reponsible for the formation of blood cells and lymphatic system cells; found in red bone marrow, spleen, tonsils and lymph nodes
Squamous scalelike
Transitional Epithelium type of epithelial tissue that forms membranes capable of stretching without breaking, as in the urinary bladder
Transcription occurs when the double-stranded DNA molecules unwind and form mRNA
Translation a synthesis of a protein by ribosomes
Active Transport movement of a substance into and out of a living cell requiring the use of cellular energy
Dialysis Separation of smaller particles from larger particles through a semipermeable membrane
Diffusion Spreading; ie scattering of dissolved particles
Filtration movement of water and solutes through a membrane by a higher hydrostatic pressure on one side
Osmosis movement of a fluid through a semipermeable membrane
Phagocytosis ingestion and digestion of particles by a cell
Pinosytosis the active transport mechanisma used to transfer fluids or dissolved substances into cells
Vesicle
Created by: dmdisme