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Spinal and Thorax

Spinal and throax Column

What are the function of the spinal column? -provides body posture, support, muscle attachment -protect the cord
How many vertebrae total? 31-33 total
Cervical C1-C7
Thoracic T1-T12
Lumbar L1-L5
Sacral S1-S5
Coccygeal 2-4
What are the three types of vertebrae? Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar
What is Annulus Fibrosis? Harder outside
What is Nucleus pulposus? Softer inside
What is the function of the Intervetebral foramen?
What is Disk herniation? Protrusion of nucleus pulposus through annulus fibrosus
What is Lordosis? Excessive anterior curvature of lumbar spine
What is Kyphosis? Excessive posterior curvature of thoracic spine
What is Scoliosis ? excessive lateral curvature (most common)
What is Atlas? C1- superior articulating facets with occipital condyles of skull
What is Axis? C2- articulates with C1. Dens or odontoid process of C2 projects up into area where body of C1 would be
What is another name for the Atlas? Atlanto-occipital Joint
What is another name for the Axis? Atlanto-axial joint
Where are Zygapophyseal Joints Between superior and inferior facet joints
What is the function of Zygapophyseal joint? Prevent excessive torsion
What do disks serve as? -spacers to allow nerve roots to exit spinal canal -act as shock absobers
Atlanto-occipital membrane Attach occipital bone of skull to C1
Atlanto-axial membrane Connects C1 to C2
Transverse (Hangman's) ligament Connects lateral masses on C1 and holds dens in place
Anterior longitudinal ligament limits hyper-extension
Posterior longitudinal ligament limits flexion
Ligamentum flavum -Limits lateral flexion - Runs between laminae
Interspinous -Between spinous processes -Limits flexion
Supraspinous -Between spinous processes -Limits flexion
Ligamentum Nuchae -Helps to supports cervical curve -Place for muscle attachment
what is C1 involved in? Flexion only
What is C2 involved in? Rotation only
Are ribs 8-12 "floating ribs"? No, only 11-12 are floating ribs. 8-10 are false ribs
What are the 3 joints in anterior articulations of the thorax comprised of? -Chondrosternal -Costochondal -Interchodral
What are the four muscles associated with cervical flexion? Sternocleidomastoid, longus colli, longus capitis, and scaleni
T/F Two muscles associated with trunk and pelvic rotation are internal oblique (bilateral) and external oblique (contralateral) False
T/F Atlanto- axial joint allows rotation C1 on top of C2 True
T/F Lordosis is anterior curvature on the lumbar spine; while Kyphosis is anterior curvature of thoracic spine False, Kyphosis is posterior curvature
T/F inhalation process can be described when the diaphragm contracting and creating more space in thoracic capacity. True
What are Chondrosternal joints? (anterior attachment) Tied by Costosternal ligament
What are Costochondral joints? (anterior attachment) Permit little movement
What are Interchondral joints? (anterior attachment) Interchondral ligament
What is Corpocapitate articulation? (Posterior attachment) -Between vertebral body and rib head -Stabilized by superior costotransverse and costovertebral radiate ligaments
What is Costotransverse articulation? (Posterior attachment) -Between tubercles of ribs 1-10 and transverse processes -Stabilized by the costotransverse ligament, ligament of the neck, and ligament of the tubercle
What is the mechanics of respiration? -Enlarge thoracic capacity -Creates vacuum -Air moves into lungs to equalize pressure
Quiet inspiration -diaghragm in charge. Some assistance from scalenes and intercostal muscles.
Quiet expiration no direct muscle action. Elastic recoil of lungs sufficient
Deep inspiration and expiration recruits more muscles
What does Phrenic nerve damage typically result in? paralysis of half of the diaphragm
Created by: rmart11