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GI Words

QuestionAnswer
absorption The passage of simple nutrients into the bloodstream.
achlorhydric Absence of hydrochloric acid in the stomach.
aerophagia Swallowing air.
anal sphincter The constricting muscle at the anus which relaxes to allow passage of stool.
anorectal Pertaining to both the anus and the rectum.
anus The outlet of the rectum.
ascending colon First portion of the colon, extending from the cecum to the lower border of the liver.
buccal Pertaining to the cheek.
bulimia An eating disorder characterized by binge eating, purging, and vigorous exercise.
cecum First 2-3" of the large intestine.
celiac Pertaining to the abdomen.
cheiloplasty Surgical repair of the lip.
cholangioma Tumour of the bile duct or vessel.
cholecystogram Radiographic record of the gallbladder.
cholelith A gallstone.
choledocholithotomy Removal of a gallstone through an incision of the bile duct.
colon Also called the large intestine; it is divided into four portions and is responsible for absorption and elimination.
descending colon Third continuation of the colon which joins and forms the sigmoid colon.
diarrhea The passage of unformed watery bowel movements.
digestion The process by which food is broken down, mechanically and chemically in the GI tract and converted into an absorbable form that can be used by the body.
diverticulitis Inflammation of a sac-like bulge that may develop in the wall of the large intestine.
duodenum Uppermost division of the small intestine; receives secretions to aid in digestion.
elimination To pass urine from the bladder or stool from the bowel.
enema The introduction of liquid into the rectum for cleansing the bowel and for stimulating evacuation of the bowels.
enterostomy Surgical formation of an opening from the small intestine through the abdominal wall.
epiglottis A flap of tissue covering the trachea, which prevents food and liquids from entering the airway.
esophagojejunostomy Anastomosis of the esophagus and jejunum.
esophagus A muscular canal which extends from the pharynx to the stomach.
gallbladder An organ below the liver which stores and empties bile through its ducts into the small intestine.
gastritis Inflammation of the stomach.
gastrointestinal system Provides the body with nutrients, electrolytes and water by ingestion, digestion, elimination and absorption.
hepatomegaly Enlargement of the liver.
hernia Abnormal protrusion of an organ or tissue through the structures that normally contain it.
ingest To eat.
ileum Lower division of the small intestine.
jejunorrhaphy Surgical repair of the jejunum.
jejunum Second division of the small intestine.
laryngopharynx The lower portion of the pharynx which divides into the trachea and esophagus.
lingual Pertaining to the tongue.
liver The largest glandular organ which functions include: producing bile, removing glucose from the blood, and storing vitamins.
liver scan Radiographic visualization of the liver after injection of a radioactive substance.
mastication Chewing- the first stage of digestion.
nasopharynx The portion of the throat above the soft palate and behind the nose.
occult blood A test in which stool samples are collected to determine gastrointestinal bleeding.
oropharynx The central part of the throat between the soft palate and epiglottis.
pancreas An organ which uses ducts to provide exocrine secretions to the duodenum to aid in digestion.
pharynx Passageway for air from the nose to the larynx and for food from the mouth to the esophagus.
proctoplasty Surgical repair or reconstruction of the rectum or colon.
proctologist One who specializes in diseases of the colon, rectum, and anus.
rectum Last portion of the GI tract which terminates at the anus.
sialolithiasis Presence of a stone in the salivary gland.
sigmoid colon A flexure of the colon which joins the descending colon and the rectum.
small intestine A continuation of the GI tract responsible for absorption. Consists of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.
stomach A sac-like structure in the abdominal cavity, responsible for digestion of food.
stoma An artificial opening, in this case, one from the bowel through the abdominal wall.
stomatitis Inflammation of the stomach.
trachea Cartilaginous tube which extends from the larynx to the bronchial tubes.
transverse colon Second portion of the colon that passes horizontally across the abdomen toward the spleen.
ulcer A lesion of the skin or mucous membrane which frequently develops into the duodenum or stomach.
ulcerative colitis Inflammation and ulceration of the innermost lining of the colon.
Created by: Jessica Longboat
 

 



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