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CulturalAnthropology

Exam 1

QuestionAnswer
Ethnocentrism The widespread human tendency to perceive the ways of doing things in ones own culture as normal and natural and that of others as strange and unnatural
Holistic Views culture as an integrated whole no part of which can be completely understood without considering the whole
Enculturation Process of learning ones culture through informal observation and formal instruction
Naturalized Concepts Ideas and behaviors so deeply embedded in a culture that they are regarded as universally normal or natural
Acculturation Process by which a group adjusts to living within a dominant culture while at the same time maintaining its original cultural identity
Global Culture An constellation of technologies, practives, attitudes, values, and symbols that spread internationally from one broad cultural origin
Emic Based on insiders views, as explanations of people have for their own cultural behavior.
Etic Based on outsiders views, as explanations of peoples behavior by anthropologists or other observers
Cross-Cultural Comparisons Understanding cultural differences through data analysis
Culture Shock Feeling out of place in unfamiliar surroundings
Worldview Culture-based way that people see the world and other people
Diffusion Spread of ideas, material objects, and cultural practices from one society to another through direct and indirect culture contact.
Language Any form of communication that involves symbols, displacement, and productivity.
Arbitrary Based on individual judgment
Displacement Ability to communicate about something that is not happening at the moment
Duality Principle that sounds are arbitrarily associated with meaning
Productivity Ability to join sounds and words into meaningful comninations
Sapir-Worf Hypotheses The structure of a language determinesor greatly influences the modes of thought and behavior characteristic of the culture in which it is spoken
Dialect A variety of a language spoken by a particular group of people, based on regional differences or social differences such as gender, class, race, or ethnicity
Creoles Languages that has historic roots derived from two or more independent languages
Pidgin Languages that have a simplified grammar and a limited vocabulary
Jargons Specialized words or expressions speoken by people who share a particular occupation or interest
Subsistence patterns Methods of obtaining food using available land and resources available labor and energy and technology
Carrying Capacity The number of people who can be sustained by the resources and environment in which they live
Teciprocity Principles of mutual gift giving
Oprimal Foraging Theory Application of animal studies and decision theory to human foraging
Nomadic People who do not have permanent homes but travel to sources of food as they become available
Transhumance The practice among pastoralist of moving to new pastureland on a seasonal basis
Foraging Hunting and gathering food
Horticulture A strategy that focuses on small-scale farming using simple technology
Pastoralism Strategy focusing on raising and caring for large herds of animals
Intensive Agriculture Intensive labor to farming
Sedentary Longterm permanent settlements
Egalitarian All members have equal access to resources, land, wealth, and power
Economic System Methods of allocating natural resources, the organization of work, and the production, dusrubution, consumption and exchange of goods
Potlatch Like a potluck
Capitalism An economic mode of production to gain control
Consumerism Culture of consumption of goods and services
Ethnology Aspect of cultural anthropology involved with building theories about cultural behaviors and forms
Ethnography Aspect of cultural anthropology involved with observing and documenting peoples ways of life
Applied Anthropology An area of anthropology that applies the techniques and theories of the field to problem solving outside of traditional academic settings
Historical Linguistics The study of changes in language and communication over time and between peoples in contact
Socio-linguistics Study of the impacts of socio-economic and cultural factors, such as gender and class, on language and communication within a society
Descriptive Linguistics The brand of linguistics which describes the structure of a language or languages as they exist, withought reference to their histories or to comparison with other languages
Old World Archaeology The history of man from the stone age to the beginnings of agriculture
New World Archaeology New world means Americas
Prehistory verses history Prehistory is a time before written records where as history has written records
Forensic Anthroplogy Is the examination of skeletal remains then they can determine the gender, age, and likely the racial stature
Paleoanthropology The study of the prehistoric human past dealing with fossil hominids, the science of human evolution
Material Culturee A person who studies the material culture of a past society
Anthropology The study of humanity, from its evolutionary origins milliions of years ago to its current worldwide diversity
Three classifications used to describe the consonants Stress, Pitch, and Length
Six major language branches in the Indo-European language family Baltic-Slavic, Indo-Iranian, Hellenic, Celtic, Italic, and Germanic
Four main subfields of Anthropology Cultural, Linguistic, Archaeology, and Biological
Cultural Anthropology the study of human culture.Examples:College professor, Museum curator, and international business consultant
Linguistic Anthropology The study of language. Examples: Diplomatic communications worker, Administrator, and Domestic communications worker
Archaeology The study of past cultures. Examples: state archaeologist, Zoo archaeologist, and environmental consultant
Biological (physical) Anthropology The study of human origans and biological diversity. Examples: Geneticist, medical researcher, and forensic specialist
Six Characteristics of Culture Culture is shared, Culture is Learned, Culture is Adaptive, Culture is integrated, Culture is based on symbols, and Culture organizes the way people think.
Culture is shared Sets of expectations and attitudes that people have about appropriate behavior
Culture is Learned The learning of ones cultural behaviors, attitudes, and values
Culture is Adaptive Basic practices that function to satisfy peoples adaptive needs
Culture is Integrated Practices and beliefs that form a coherent and consistent system. Comprehensive shared ideas about the ideal culture
Culture is Based of Symbols Words, images, or objects that stand for cultural ideas or sentiments
Culture Organizes the way people think about the world Ideas and behaviors that are so deepl embedded in a culture that they are regarded as universally normal or natural
Created by: mslita112
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