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Cells and Anatomy

Plasmalemma Isolates; protects; is sensitive; supports; control of entrance/exit of materials
Cytosol Distributes materials by diffusion; stores glycogen, pigments and other materials
Cytoskeleton Strength and support; movement of cellular structures and materials
Microvilli Increase surface area to facilitate absorption of extracellular materials
Centrosome Essential for movement of chromosomes during cell division; organisation of microtubules in cytoskeleton
Cilia Movement of materials over cell surface
Ribosomes Protein synthesis
Mitochondria Produce 95% of ATP required by the cell
Nucleus Control of metabolism; storage and processing of genetic info; control of protein synthesis
Nucleolus Site of rRNA synthesis and assembly of ribosomal subunits
Rough ER Modification and packaging of newly synthesized proteins
Smooth ER Lipid, steroid, and carbohydrate synthesis; calcium ion storage
Golgi Apparatus Storage, alteration and packaging of secretory products and lysosomal enzymes
Lysosome Intracellular removal of damaged organelles of of pathogens
Peroxisome Catabolism of fats and other organic compounds; neutralization of toxic compounds generated in the process
Facilitated diffusion Carrier molecules transport materials down a concentration gradient
Osmosis Movement of water molecules toward high solute concentrations; requires membrane
Diffusion Molecular movement of solutes; direction determined by relative concentrations
Active transport Carrier molecules work despite opposing concentration gradients
Endocytosis Formation of membranous vesicles containing fluid or solid material at the plasmalemma
Exocytosis Fusion of vesicles containing fluids and/or solids with the plasmalemma
Integumentary system protection from environmental hazards, temperature control
Skeletal system Support, protection of soft tissues; mineral storage; blood formation
Muscular system Locomotion, support, heat production
Nervous system Directing immediate responses to stimuli, usually by coordinating the activities of other organ systems
Endocrine system Directing long-term changes in the activities of other organ systems
Cardiovascular system Internal transport of cells and dissolved materials, including nutrients, wastes and gases
Lymphoid system Defense against infection and disease
Respiratory system Delivery of air to sites where gas exchange can occur between the air and circulating blood
Digestive system Processing of food and absorption of organic nutrients, minerals, vitamins, and water
Urinary system Elimination of excess water, salts and waste products; control of pH
Reproductive system Production of sex cells and hormones
Homeostasis Maintenance of a stable environment
Positive feedback Increases the intensity of the change or magnifies the change
Negative feedback Returns the change variable back to normal levels
Created by: TeAtarua