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skeletal system 8/17

bones

QuestionAnswer
skeletal system mechanical functions: Framework, proteccts, movement (acts as rigid bar in a lever) sound transduction.
skeletal system synthetic functions: hematopoiesis (blood production)
skeletal system metabolic functions: stores minerals (ca, P, Mg,stores adipose fat in medullary cavity of long bones,acid-base balance-bones release & absorb alkaline salts that keep ph balanced...., detoxify blood-absorb heavy metals from blood and release them later.
number of bones in a fetus 270 that ultimately fuse to 206 total bones.
what two sub divisions is the skel system comprised of: axial made up of 80 bones, and appendicular made up of 126.
Long bones humerus, radius, ulna, metacarpals, phalanges, femur, tibia, fibula, metatarsals
short bones carpals and tarsals
flat bones cranials, sternum, rib cage, scapula
irregular bones facial, vertebrae, coceyx, hips
sesamoid bones are wrapped in connective tissue, knee cap,,,patella
wormian or sutural bone extra bones found between the sutures of cranial bone. predominantly between the parietal and occipital bones.
bone ossification origin: during gastula stage of embryological dev. (3 wks after conc.) 3 germ layers are formed from which all organs are derived.
3 germ layers include (superior to inferior) ectodermmesodermendoderm
bones are derived from what layer? mesodermal layer (some of the mesodermal cells differentiate to form mesenchymal cells.
once thhe osteoblast is formed it will establish what? bone tissue
what is the embryonic skeleton comprised of: hyaline cartilage (avascular no blood)fibrous cartilage (highly vascularized lots of blood)
when does the ossification process begin and end? 6th and 7th week of prenatal life and is not complete until adulthood.
endochondral ossification converts hyaline cartilage to bonemost common ossification processalmost every bone is formed this way
intramembranous ossification converts the highly vascularized fibrous connective tissue to bone. least common ossif processforms cranial bones, mandible, and clavicles.
what is bone comprised of: bone tissue
what is bone tissue comprised of: matrix & cells
matrix 25% h20 25% collagen adds flexability to bone50% mineral salts (hydroxyapatite, ca2 Co3-they both add hardness to bone.
what are the bone tissue cells osteoprogenitorosteoblastosteocyteosteoclast
Osteoprogenitor derived from mesenchymal cellsdifferentiate into osteoblasts
Osteoblast immature bone cellderived from osteoprogenitoris a boone establishing cell (lays down the matrix of bone once the matrix is established it entraps inself in a space called a lacuna and converts to osteocyte
osteocyte mature bone cellmaintains the viability of the bone tissue via the dev of long appendages called canaliculi- caniculi are capillary like structure that permit an osteocyte to communicate w/ other osteocyte also nutrient and waste exchange between
osteoclast derived from wbca bone resorption or break down cell largest bone cell and has multinucleation & vacoules that contain acids and enzymes to break down bone
epiphysis comprises of outer compact and inner cancellous bone.covered by articulating hyaline cartilage prevents bone rub.
metaphysis area between epiphyses and diaphysishouses the epiphseal growth plate site of endochondrial ossif for first 21 yearsof life
diaphysis make up of compact bone.houses the cavit that contains yellow marrowhouses nutrient famina that allow blood and lymph vessel to access bone.
periosteum highly vascularized conn tissue.covers all bone with exception of the articulating cartilage on the epiphysesconsist of 2 layers. outer layer is called fibrous peristeum
what acts as an attchment site for muscles via tendons periosteum
periosteum inner layer is called osteogenic layer provides bone cells blood and lymph supply to bone that enter thru nutrient foramina in diaphysis.
perichondrium highly vascularized conn tissue and surrounds the articulating hyaline cart of epiphysisprovides blood supply to avascular hyaline cart.
Created by: JLRoss12