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HSF II Cardio III

QuestionAnswer
Artery vs Vein flow Artery away from heart, vein to heart
Pulmonary Circulation Pressure low pressure system
Systemic Circulation Pressure high pressure system
Mean Arterial Pressure average pressure in an artery during one cardiac cycle
Heart Orientation in Mediastinum base is superior, apex inferior. Rotated counterclockwise, lies on right side
Heart and Rib Location base of heart at 2nd intercostal space, apex at the 5th intercostal, 2.5-3 inches left of midline
Serous Fluid in pericardial space lubricates and eliminates friction between the heart and adjacent tissues as the heart beats
Aerobic Respiration heart relies on this respiration, unable to pump in ischemic environments. supplied by coronary arteries
Cardiomyocytes contain large numbers of mitochondria, enabling continuous aerobic respiration and production of ATP
Myoglobin heart contains large concentrations, an oxygen-storing protein
Striated Cardiac Muscle contains sarcomeres, contains actin, myosin, troponin, and tropomyosin, contraction explained by the sliding filament model, excitation/contraction coupling via Ca++
Intercalated Discs interconnecting cardiac muscle cells, have gap junctions causing myocardium to function as a syncytium
Myocardial Contraction Regulation intrinsically by pacemaker activity, and extrinsically by ANS and endocrine systems
Contractile Cardiomyocytes bulk of myocardium, specialized for contraction, stable membrane potential, dont show pacemaker activity
Pacemaker Cardiomyocytes specialized for conduction, and are responsible for coordinated contraction between the contractile cells
Pacemaker Potentials action potentials that initiate the action potentials in contractile cells, resulting in contraction, slow inflow of Na+ without compensating outflow of K+
Intrinsic Contractile Rate inherent pacemaker activity determine
Intrinsic Conduction System connected pathway of pacemaker cells, comprised of SA node, internodal pathways, AV node, bundle branches, Purkinje Cells
SA node Sinoatrial node, posterior wall of right atrium, primary driver of heart rate, known as cardiac pacemaker
AV node atrioventricular node, at junction between atria and ventricles. gets stimulus from SA node and through branches, acts as backup to SA node
Internodal Pathways in atrial walls,
Authorhythmic cells pacemaker and conducting, control and coordinate the heartbeat
5 Steps of Prepotential 1) K+ permeability decreases 2) Na+ permeability increases 3)Ca++ T Channels open at -50 mV 4) Ca++ L Channels open at -40mV 5) at max depol L channels close and K+ open for repol.
Overdrive Suppression when slower depolarizing events (AV node and purkinje fibers) are inhibited by the SA node because it is fastest
Heart Block when the link between SA node and pacemaker cells in vent are broken, atria and vents myocardia beat independently
Ectopic Focus group of cells that transiently depolarizes more rapidly than the normal pacemaker, an out of place pacemaker, causes: fatigue, caffeine, ANS irreg
Fibrous Trigone delays transmission of the beat from AV node to bundle of his, causing atria and vent to beat at different times ~200msec slower
Contractile Potential depol via influx of Na+, plateau phase by prolonged Ca++ influx , L Ca channels
ECG (EKG) represents summation of all the electrical activity associated with one heartbeat
End-Systolic Volume volume of blood in a ventricle at the end of contraction
End-Diastolic Volume volume of blood in ventricle at the end of filling/diastole, or end of atrial systole
Strove Volume EDV-ESV = SV, volume of blood ejected into the aorta
Isovolumetric Ventricular Contraction ventricles contract with no pressure change, when all heart valves are still closed
Ventricular Ejection when the pressure in the vents is higher than the aorta and pulmonary arteries,
Ejection Fraction SV/EDV, normalizes the number because hearts are different. Should be above 50%
Created by: connorquinby