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Apologia Human Body

Module 8: Central Nervous System

QuestionAnswer
If your blood glucose level drops, the other cells in your body can help your brain cells by using ____________________ so as to allow the neurons to get the glucose that is left. fat and proteins
What part of the brain is significantly larger in humans than in any other vertebrates? Cerebrum
Amphibians typically move in a jerky, uncoordinated fashion compared to other vertebrates because the _________________ is not as well-developed as it is in other vertebrates. cerebellum
What portion of the brain is affected by tranquilizers? reticular activation system
If someone has a concussion and has difficulty speaking but no problem thinking of the words to say, the _______________ was most likely damaged. Broca's area
If a person hits their head and feels numb all over, the _________________________ was affected. somatic sensory area
Tremors, or uncontrolled hand shaking even while at rest, are a sign that there is something wrong with the ________________________________. basal nuclei
Fear reactions that seem to be a natural part of the brain which require no learning are stored here. limbic system, specifically the amygdaloid nucleus
Damage to the dural sinuses can cause bleeding into the subdural space, a subdural hematoma, which would lead to pressure on the ___________________. brain
Why would leakage of the CSF out fo the body increase the risk of meningitis? Bacteria and pathogens could get in.
Where are the cell bodies of the neurons which make up the ventral root? spinal cord
Which neuron in the reflex arc is responsible for interpreting the afferent signals and determining whether or not the reflex should be activated? association neuron
A condition in which the brain is not getting enough oxygen, which kills neurons. Hypoxia
A condition in which the glucose levels in your blood get too low, so neurons cannot produce the energy they need to do their jobs hypoglycemia
Which structure of the brain deals with the motor functions that we perform without conscious thinking of them? cerebellum
A sulcus is a groove that separates the _____________. gyri
The _______________________________ allows the two hemispheres of the brain to communicate with one another. corpus callosum
The general term for structures that allow two hemispheres of the brain to communicate with each other is ____________________. commissures
receives and localizes general sensations from the entire body primary somatic sensory area
recognizes the meaning of visual information by putting it into context with your past experiences visual association area
interprets the basic visual information such as shape and color visual cortex
deals with the comprehension of speech Wernicke's area
interprets the meaning of sound by placing it into context with your past experiences auditory association area
interprets the basics of sound such as pitch and volume primary auditory area
initiates the muscle movements for speech Broca's area
interprets taste taste area
site of motivation and foresight; regulates mood and emotion prefrontal area
works out the sequence of signals needed for complex motion premotor area
controls skeletal muscle movements primary motor cortex
The majority of CSF is made here lateral ventricles
The job of this is to cushion the brain and provide some nutrition CSF
The dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater protect the brain and are collectively called the ________________. meninges
Extensions of arachnoid mater which return CSF into the dural sinus so that it returns to the blood within the dural sinus arachnoid granulates
Allows your muscles to react more quickly than they would if the brain were to have to make all th decisions regarding working the muscles. reflex arc
Where can you find the association neuron in the reflex arc? spinal cord
The afferent neuron forms a ____________________________ to send information along the reflex arc and also to the brain diverging circuit
The efferent neuron is a part of the _____________________, since both the reflex arc and the brain must control the muscle converging circuit
What is the main function of the ventricles in the brain? produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
In a reflex arc, an _____________sends a signal to an association neuron in the spinal cord. If the signal is interpreted as severe pain, heat, etc., the association neuron immediately sends a signal down the efferent neuron which controls the muscles. afferent neuron
The association neuron in the reflex arc forms a forms a converging circuit which _____________ at the cell body, so both the reflex arc and the brain can control the muscle. synapses
Gray matter Collections of nerve cell bodies and their associated neuroglia
White matter Bundles of parallel axons and their sheaths
Decussation A crossing over
Vital functions Those functions of the body necessary for life on a short-term basis
Commissures Connections of nerve fibers which allow the two hemispheres of the brain to communicate with one another
Created by: q
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