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Hormones Exam I

Hormones from endocrine and CV I/IIR

QuestionAnswer
NO Nitric Oxide, vasodilator and inhibitor of platelet aggregation
Prostacyclin (PGI2) inhibits platelet aggregation, eicosinoid, repels platelets from vessel walls
CD39 (an ADPase) inhibit platelet aggregation
Heparin anticoagulant, inhibiting thrombin, in endothelial cells, paired with antithrombin III affect factors II and X
vWF van Willebrand Factor, procoagulant, binds and prevents degradation of factor VIII. Platelets activate membrane receptors. Circulating and in subendothelium
Endothelins proteins/cytokines that constrict blood vessels
Fibrinogen inactive factor I, fibrin is active factor I, binds to platelet membrane receptor activated by vWF
Serotonin (5-HT) one of three factors in platelet plug formation, also a vasoconstrictor/binds to smooth muscle
ADP one of three factors in platelet plug formation enhance platelet plug formation
Thromboxane A2 prostaglandin/eicosinoid, one of three factors in platelet plug formation, vasoconstrictor
Ca++ Ions required for thrombus formation, in plasma phase of hemostasis
PF3 Platelet Factor 3 , needed for plasma phase of hemostasis
Factor I fibrinogen, protein from liver
Factor II prothrombin, protein from liver, requires Vitamin K
Factor III Tissue Factor, lipoprotein from damaged tissue/activated platelets. activates VII, which activates X. enters blood from outside
Factor IV Ca++ ion, from bone, diet, platelets
Factor V Proaccelerin, protein, from liver platelets
Factor VI no longer used
Factor VII Proconvertin, protein, from liver, requires Vitamin K, activates X, extrinsic pathway
Factor VIII antihemophilic, protein factor (AHF), from platelets and endothelial cells
Factor IX plasma thromboplastin, protein factor, from liver requires vitamin K
Factor X Stuart-Power Factor, protein, from liver requires vitamin K, prothrombinase, where extrinsic and intrinsic pathways meet
Factor XI plasma thromboplastin, protein antecedent (PTA), from liver
Factor XII Hageman factor, protein, from liver, activated when it contacts subendothelial tissues
Factor XIII Fibrin-stabilizing, protein factor (FSF), enzyme from liver and platelets, stabilizes clot by cross-linking fibrin strands
Vitamin K required for liver to synthesize Factors II, VII, IX, X
Hemophilia A lack of VIII, dependent on vWF, sex linked, males are active expressers, females are heterozygous
Hemophilia B
Hemophilia A lack of VIII, dependent on vWF, sex linked, males are active expressers, females are heterozygous
Hemophilia B lack of factor IX, what ended up in the Romanov family
Hemophilia C lack of factor X, not sex linked, almost always found of eastern European/Jewish decent
Thrombin Factor II, strongly stimulates earlier portions of the cascade, positive feedback loops. catalyzes polymerization of fibrin
Antithrombin III inhibits many clotting factors, most notably X and II, protein from liver , paired with herparin affect Factors II and X
Thrombomodulin membrane protein in endothelial cells, binds with thrombin to decrease level of thrombin and inhibit clotting
Protein C thrombomodulin-thrombin complex activates protein C which combines with protein S, inactivating factors V and VIII
Plasmin active form of plasminogen, activated by XI, XII, tissue plasminogen activator. promotes fribrinolysis
Clot Busters frequently proteolytic enzymes that cleave fibrin and allow trapped cells to escape
Aldosterone steroid hormone from zona glomerulosa regulates K+
Cytokines produced by non-classically endocrine organs or tissues
Amino Acid Derivative Hormones tryptophan, tyrosine = catecholamines, peptides. Derived from amino acids
Lipid Derivative Hormones steroid hormones, eicosinoids
Eicosinoids derivatives of membrane phospholipids , parent molecule is arachidonic acid. Four eicosinoids: prostaglandins, thromboxanes, prostacyclins, leukotrienes
Steroid Hormones cholesterol is parent compound
Phospholipase A acts on membrane phospholipids to produce arachidonic acid.
Arachidonic Acid parent molecule for eicosinoids
Cyclooxygenases eicosinoids by COX-1 and COX-2 pathways: prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxanes
Lipoxygenase leukotrienes, not produced by endocrine organs
Leukotrienes involved in asthmatic and allergic reactions and act to sustain inflammatory reactions
Amino Acid and Peptide Hormones functional <1 hour, usually not complexed with transport protein, quickly degraded: hydrophilic, lipophobic, and polar. not membrane diffusable
Thyroid and Steroid Hormones circulate much longer, >99% become attached to transport protein thus larger reserve in blood: hydrophobic, lipophilic, and nonpolar. membrane diffusable
Parathyroid Hormone from parathyroid principle (chief) cells, increases Ca++ blood concentration, targets kidney, and bone
Melatonin from pineal pinealocytes and a derivative of amino acid tryptophan, from when it gets dark. has antioxidant activity and immune function
ADH peptide neurohormone, known as vasopressin, from posterior pituitary, targets kidney for blood volume and pressure
Oxytocin neurohormone, from posterior pituitary, target tissues not endocrine, primary effects parturition and lactation
Tropic Hormones control activity of other endocrine glands
Six Hormones from Anterior Pituitary ACTH (adrenocortico-tropic hormone), TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone), LH (leutinizing hormone), FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone), prolactin, GH (growth hormone)
Thyroglobulin synthesized by follicular cells, precursor to thyroid hormones, stored in follicle as a gelatinous colloid
T3 triiodothyronine, made from tyrosine and iodine, stimulates growth related processes in general and osteogenesis in particular. receptor located in nucleus or cytoplasm
T4 thyroxine, from tyrosine and iodine, converted to T3 in blood
Thyroid Binding Globulin (TBG) transports T3
Calcitonin made in parafollicular/C cells, targets bone/kidneys, decreases Ca concentrations in body fluids, opposed by PTH
ACTH adrencorticotropic hormone, targets adrenal gland zona fasciculata, increases cortisol
Cortisol promotes gluconeogenesis, has effects on immune system
CRH corticotropin releasing hormone, stimulates ACTH to go to kidney to increase cortisol
DHEA dehydroepiandrosterone, primary androgen secreted by zona reticularis, a steroid precursor to testosterone, calls for secondary sex characteristics in males
hGH somatotropin, direct effects are anabolic, releasing energy, and stimulating growth, indirect effects mediated by somatomedins
Somatomedins liver hormones stimulated by hGH
IGF-1 insulin-like growth factor, most important somatomedin, associated with osteogenesis, strong effect on cartilage, bone, and skeletal muscle growth
LH leutinizing hormone, develops from the ovulating follicle –binds to leydig/interstitial cells to secrete testosterone in males
FSH follicle stimulating hormone, gamete production ova/sperm, target seminiferous tubule nurse cells in males, meiotic divisions for haploid sperm
Albuminss maintaining partitioning of water between plasma and interstitial fluid
Alpha and Beta Globulins enzymatic activity and/or are transport proteins, made in liver
Gamma globulins antibodies, made by plasma cells, lymphocytes
Hemoglobin protein A2B2 polypeptide chains and 4 heme groups
EPO erythropoieton, made by peritubular fibroblasts of the renal cortex, regulating RBC numbers, causing myeloid stem cells to turn into RBCs
Transferrin transports Fe in and out of the liver
Bilirubin Fe deficient hemoglobin, released into blood causing plasma to be yellow
Bile incorporates bilirubin, essential for proper absorption of dietary lipids
Created by: connorquinby