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A & P ch12

neural tissue

12-1 The 2 major anatomical subdivisions of the nervous system are: Central nervous system (cns) and Peripheral nervous system (pns)
12-1 The central nervous system (cns)consists of: the brain and spinal cord
12-1 the primary function(s) of the nervous system include: a. providing sensation of the internal and external enviromnents b.integrating sensory information c. regulating and controlling peripheral structures and systems
12-2 neurons are responsible for: information transfer and processing in the nervous system
12-2 The region of a neuron with voltage-gated sodium channels is the: Axon hillox
12-2 Neurons are classified on the basis of the structure as: anaxonic,unipolar,bipolar,multipolar
12-2 Neurons are classified on the basis of their function as: motor(efferent),sensor(afferent), association(interneurons)
12-3The two major cell populations of neural tissue are: neurons and neuroglia
12-3 the types of glial cells in the central nervous system are: 1. Astrocytes 2. Oligodendrocytes 3.Microglia 4. Ependymal cells
12-3 The neuroglia that play a role in structural organization by tying clusters of axons together are the : oligodendrocytes
12-4 Depolarization of the membrane will shift the membrane potential toward: 0 mV
12-4 The resting membrane potential (RMP) of a typical neuron is: -70 mV
12-5 If resting membrane potential is -70 mV and the threshold is -60 mV, a membrane potential of -62 mV will: not produce an action potential
12-5 At the site of an action potential the membrane contains: An excess of positive ions inside and an excess of negative ions outside. Negative w/iNside and pOsitive w/the Outside
12-5 If the resting membrane potential is -70 mV, a hyperpolarized membrane is: -80 mv
12-6 a node along the axon represents an area where there is: an absence of myelin
12-6 The larger the diameter of the axon: The faster an action potential will be conducted. like monster cable for a stereo.
12-6 The two most important factors that determine the rate of action potential conduction are: the presence or absence of a myelin steath and the diameter of the axon
12-7 At an electrical synapse, the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are locked together at: gap junctions
12-7 chemical synapses differ from electric synapses, because chemical synapses: involve a neurotransmitter
12-7 the effect of a neurotransmitter on the postsynaptic membrane depends on the: properties of the receptor
12-7 Exocytosis and the release of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft is triggered by: calcium ions flooding into the axoplasm
12-7 The normal stimulus for neurotransmitter release is the depolarization of the synaptic knob by the: arrival of an action potential
12-8 Inhibitory or hyperpolarizing CNS neurotransmitters include: dopamine and serotonin
12-9 An excitatory postsynaptic potential(EPSP)is: a depolarization produced by the arrival of a neuro-transmitter
12-9 an inhibitory postsynaptic potential(IPSP) is a: transient hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane
12-9 Compounds that have an indirect effect on membrane potential work through intermediaries known as: second messengers
12-9 The reason(s) that active neurons need ATP is to support: A.the synthesis, release, and recycling of neurotransmitter molecules B.the recovery from action potentials C.The movement of materials to and from the soma via axoplasmic flow
12-9 Sensory neurons are responsible for carrying impulses: to the CNS
12-9 Interneurons, or associated neurons, differ from sensory and motor neurons because of their: exclusive location in the brain and spinal cord
12-9 Efferent pathways consist of axons that carry impulses: away from the CNS
12-9 Graded potentials that develop in the postsynaptic membrane in response to a neurotransmitter are: postsynaptic potentials
12-9 The addition of stimuli occurring in rapid succession is: temporal summation
The visceral motor system that provides automatic,involuntary regulation of smooth and cardiac muscle and glandular secretions is the _____________. autonomic nervous system
The "branches" that enable a single neuron to communicate with several other cells are called ___________. collaterals
Sensory information is brought to the CNS by means of the ________ fibers. afferent
In times of infection or injury the type of neuroglia that will increase in numbers is __________. microglia
The sum of all the chemical and electrical forces active across the cell membrane is known as the __________. electrochemical gradient
An action potential occurs only if the membrane is depolarized to the level known as __________. threshold
The process that conducts impulses along a myelineated axon at a high rate of speed is called ________ conduction. saltatory
The type of synapse where direct physical contact between the cells occurs is a(an) ____________. electrical
The neuromuscular junction is a synapse where the postsynaptic cell is a(an)________. skeletal muscle fiber
Chemical synapses that release that neurotransmitter acetycholine are known as _________ synapses. cholinergic
Chemical synapses that release the neurotransmitter norepinephrine are known as ___________ synapses. adrenergic
Compounds that influence the postsynaptic cells' response to a neurotransmitter are called _____________. neuromodulators
Addition of stimuli occurring in rapid succession at a single synapse is called ____________. temporal summation
Addition of stimuli arriving at different location of the nerve cell membrane is called ____________. spatial summation
Sensory neurons that monitor the position of skeletal muscles and joints are called ____________. proprioceptors
The spread of nerve impulses from one neuron to several neurons is called ____________. divergence
A graded hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane is referred to as a(n) ____________. IPSP
somatic nervous system voluntary control
autonomic nervous system involuntary control
axons transmit action potentials
visceral sensory neurons interoceptors
somatic sensory neurons exteroceptors
neuroglia supporting brain cells
maintain blood-brain barriers astrocytes
sodium channel inactivation +30 mV
resting membrane potential (neuron) -70 mV
potassium ion movement repolarization
unmyelinated axons continuous conduction
nodes of Ranvier saltatory conduction
electrical synapses gap junctions
norepinephrine adrenergic synapse
GABA inhibitory effect
CNS neurotransmitter serotonin
second messenger cAMP
EPSP depolarization
spatial summation simultaneous multiple synapses
The anatomical division of the nervous system responsible for integrating, processing and coordinating sensory information is the: (CNS) central nervous system
Interneurons are responsible for: analysis of sensory inputs and coordination of motor outputs
A long cytoplasmic process capable of propagating an action potential is the: axon
The type of cells that surround the nerve cell bodies in peripheral ganglia are: satellite cells
Schwann cells are glial cells responsible for: producing a myelin layer around peripheral axons
When a barrier prevents the movement of opposite charges toward one another, a(an): potential difference may exist
The membranous wrapping of electrical insulation, called myelin, aroun an axon is responsible for: increasing the speed at which an action potential travels along an axon
The simplest form of information processing in the nervous system is: the integration of stimuli at the level of the individual cell
During the relative refractory period a larger-than-normal depolarizing stimulus can: initiate a second action potential
Saltatory conduction conducts impulses along an axon: five to seven times faster than continuous conduction
In type C fiber action potentials are conducted at speeds of approximately: 2 mph
The larger the diameter of the axon, the: faster the rate of transmission
Facilitation in the neuron's transmembrane potential refers to: a shift closer to theshold
Sensory neurons that provide information about the external envirnment through the sense of sight,smell,hearing, and touch are called: exteroceptors
the main functional difference between the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system is that the activities of the ANS are: primarily involuntary or under "automatic" control
EPSPs and IPSPs reflect the activation of different types of chemically gated channels, producing: opposing effects on the transmembrane potential
If one EPSP depolarizes the initial segment from a resting potential of -70mV to -65mV, and threshold is at -60mv: an action potential will not be generated
presynaptic facilitation refers to the: Calcium channels remaining open for a longer period, thus increasing the amount of neurotrnasmitter released
The cytoplasm that surrounds a neuron's nucleus is referred to as the _____________. perikaryon
Nerve cell bodies in the PNS are clustered together in masses called__________. ganglia
Movement of charges, such as ions, is referred to as ___________. current
The potential difference that exists across a membrane or other barrier is expressed as a(n) _____________. voltage
Ion channels that open or close in response to specific stimuli are called __________ channels. voltage-regulated
The loss of positive ions, which causes a shift in the resting potential to -80mV or more, is referred to as __________. hyperpolarization
An action potential traveling along an axon is called a(n) ___________. nerve impulse
The small phagocytic cells that occur in increased numbers in infected and damaged areas of the CNS are called _______. microglia
Axons extending from the CNS to a ganglion are called __________. preganglionic fibers
Axons connecting the ganglionic cells with peripheral effectors are known as __________. postganglionic fibers
Neurons that may be situated betwen sensory and motor neurons are called __________ neurons. interneurons
If a synapse involves direct physical contact between cells, it is termed electrical; if the synapse is termed chemical it involves a _________. neurotransmitter
the addition of stimuli that arrive at a single synapse in rapid succession is called ___________. temporal summation
Collections of nerve bodies in the CNS are termed ____________. nuclei
The axonal bundles that make up the white matter of the CNS are called _________. tracts
Created by: msd94



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