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AP Euro History Ch14

1. Prester John A mysterious Christian kingdom
2. The Travels of John Mandeville fantasy literature that spoke of realms filled with precious stones and gold
3. Marco Polo the son of Niccolo Maffeo, who where merchants from Venice and famous medieval travelers
4. "God, Glory, and Gold" primary motives
5. portolani Charts made by Medieval navigators and mathematicians in the 13 and 14 century
6. Ptolemy's Geography A map that showed the world as spherical with three major land masses Europe, Asia, and Africa
7. lateen sails and square rigs this allowed ships mobile enough to sail against the wind and engage enable warfare and also large enough to mount heavy cannons.
8. compass and astrolabe New navigational aids
9. Prince Henry the Navigator Founded a school for navigators on the southwestern coast of Portugal
10. the Gold coast A new source of gold along the southern coast of west Africa
11. Bartholomeu Dias Took advantage of westerly winds in the south Atlantic to round the cape of good hope but returned
12. Vasco Da Gama and Calicut Rounded the cape and stopped at several ports controlled by Muslim merchants
13. Alfonso de Albuquerque set up port facilities at GOA, on the western coast of India south of present day Bombay
14. Malacca had been transformed by its Muslim rulers into a thriving port and a major stopping point for the spice trade
15. Spice Islands provided the Portuguese with a way station on the route to the Moluccas
16. Christopher Columbus a Spanish explorer who reached the Bahamas and then Cuba and the northern shores of Hispaniola. He believed he had reached Asia.
17. John Cabot was a Venetian seaman who explored the New England coastline of the Americas under a license from King Henry VII of England.
18. Vasco Nunez de Balboa led an expedition across the Isthmus of Panama and reached the Pacific Ocean in 1513.
19. Ferdinand Magellan after passing through the strait named after him at the southern tip of South America, he sailed across the Pacific Ocean and reached the Philippines where he met his death at the hands of the natives.
20. Treaty of Tordesillas divided up the newly discovered work into separate Portuguese and Spanish spheres of influence
21. Herman Cortes and Moctezuma he marched to the city of Tenochtitlan, he made alliances with city states that had tired of the oppressive rule of the Aztecs
22. the Aztecs and Yenochititlan people whose long migration brought them to the valley of Mexico, established their capital at Tenochtitlan, on an island in the middle of Lake Texcoco.
23. the Inca and Pachakuti a small community in the area of Cuzco under the leadership of their powerful ruler, Pachakuti who created a highly centralized state.
24. Francisco Pizarro landed on the Pacific coast with a band of about 180 men but he had steel weapons, gunpowder and horses.
25. encomienda a system that permitted the conquering Spaniards to collect tribute from teh natives and use them as laborers
26. the viceroy and audiencias served as the king's chief civil and military officer and was aided by advisory groups called audiencias
27. Boers and Cape town Dutch farmers who began to settle in areas outside the city of Cape Town
28. slave trade and the middle passage the journey of slaves from Africa to the Americas
29. the Triangular Trade Connected Europe, Africa and the American continents that characterized the new Atlantic economy.
30. "sugar factories" sugar plantations in the Caribbean
31. Dutch East India Company established pepper plantations, which soon became the source of massive profits for Dutch merchants in Amsterdam
32. Batavia on the island of Java, the Dutch established a fort
33. Mughal Empire founders came from the mountainous region north of the Ganges River valley
34. British East India Company received from the now-decripit Mughal court the authority to collect taxes from lands in the area surrounding Calcutta
35. Robert Clive an aggressive British empire-builder who eventually became the chief representative of the East India Company in India
36. "Black hole of Calcutta" an underground prison for holding prisoners
37. Ming and Qing Dynasties Otherthrow of the Ming dynasty, Manchus conquered Beijing snd then declared the creatation of a new dynasty (Qing)
38. Lord Macartney and Emperor Qianlong Lord Macartney led a mission in which he visited Beijing to press for liberalization of trade restrictions. Emperor Qianlong expressed no inteerest in British products
39. Tokugawa shoguns Tokugawa Leyasu, took the title os showgun in 1603, an act that initiated the most powerful and longest=lasting of all the japanese showgun
40. Nagaski and the Dutch the government closed off major ports and only a small Dutch community in Nagasaki was allowed to remain in Japan.
41. Britain's navigation Acts regulated what could be taken from and sold in the colonies
42. Samuel de Champlain established a settlement in Quebec in 1608, made the French begin to take a more serious interest in Canada as a colony
43. The asiento when British were givin the privilege of transporting 4,500 slaves a year into Spanish Latin America
44. Inflation a major economic problem in the 16th and early 17 centuries.
45. joint-stock trading companies Individuals bought shares in a company and received dividents on their investment while a board of directors ran the company and made the important business decisions
46. House of fugger went bankrupt at the end of the 16th century when the Hasburgs defaulted on their loans.
47. Mercantilism the name historians use to identify a set of economic tendencies that came to dominate economic practices in the seventeenth century
48. Mestizos and mulattoes European and native american offspring: the offspring of Africans and whites
49. the Columbian Exchange the reciprocal importation and exportation of plants and animals between Europe and the Americas
50. Gerardus Mercador A Flemish cartographer that created the Mercador projection which shows the true chape of land masses but only on a limited area.
Created by: ambrecooper