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Anatomy Lab 4

TermDefinition
coronary (atrioventricular) sulcus runs around the heart and separates the atria from the ventricles
anterior interventricular sulcus one of two grooves that separates the heart ventricles; situated on the sternocoastal surface of the heart; anterior interventricular artery runs through here
posterior interventricular sulcus one of the two grooves that separates the heart ventricles; situated on the diaphragmatic surface; posterior interventricular artery runs through here
sternocostal (anterior) surface formed mainly by the right ventricle
diaphragmatic (inferior) surface formed mainly by the left ventricle and a small part of the right ventricle
left pulmonary surface formed mainly by the left ventricle; is in contact with the cardiac impression of the left lung
surfaces of the heart sternocostal, diaphragmatic, left pulmonary
right pulmonary surface formed mainly by the right atrium
what landmarks mark the boundaries of the four chambers of the heart? coronary sulcus and interventricular sulci
left coronary artery divides into? anterior interventricular branch (aka left anterior descending artery or LAD) and circumflex branch
right coronary artery divides into? right marginal branch and posterior interventricular branch
what is the crux of the heart? the point where the posterior interventricular sulcus meets the coronary sulcus
pectinate muscles muscles of the atrial wall; are horizontal ridges of muscle
crista terminalis a vertical ridge of muslce that connects the pectinate muscles; found on inner surface of anterior wall of right atrium; separates the smooth and rough parts of the RA; presents externally as a shallow groove called sulcus terminalis
Structures located at the posterior wall of the right atrium opening of the superior vena cava opening and valve of the inferior vena cava opening and valve of the coronary sinus fossa ovalis and the limbus fossa ovalis
location of sinuatrial node lies at superior end of the crista terminalis at the junction between the right atrium and the superior vena cava
location of atrioventricular node located in the interatrial septum, above the opening of the coronary sinus
boundaries of the superior mediastinum superior - superior thoracic aperature posterior - bodies of vertebrae T1 - T4 anterior - manubrium of sternum lateral - mediastinal pleurae (left and right) inferior - plane of the sternal angle
what is the path of the arch of azygos vein? passes superior to the root of the right lung and drains into the posterior surface of the superior vena cava
how do the phrenic nerves run relative to the roots of the lungs? what other nerves are they bundled with? what do they innervate? both the right and left phrenic nerves pass anterior to the roots of the lungs, they accompany the pericardiocophrenic vessels and enter the superior surface of the diaphram
what 3 arteries arise from the arch of the aorta? brachiocephalic trunk left common carotid artery left subclavian artery
ligamentum arteriosum a fibrous cord that connects the arch of aorta to the left pulmonary artery
where does the trachea bifurcate? at the plane of the sternal angle
boundaries of the posterior mediastinum superior - plane of the sternal angle posterior - bodies of vertebrae T5 - T12 anterior - pericardium lateral - mediastinal pleurae (left and right) inferior - diaphram
location of thoracic duct lies immediately to the left of the azygos vein and is posterior to the esophagus
route of the thoracic duct inferiorly it passes through the diaphram with the thoracic aorta; superiorly it terminates by draining into the junction of the left internal jugular vein and left subclavian vein
aortic valve 3 semilunar cusps (right, left, posterior aka noncoronary); behind each cusp is a small pocket called an aortic sinus
coronary sinus on diaphragmatic surface of heart a dilated portion of the venous system of the heart that is located in the coronary sulcus; is 2-2.5cm long and opens into RA
anterior cardiac viens bridge the atrioventricular sulcus between the RA and RV; drain the anterior wall of RV directly into the RA; pass superficial to the right coronary artery; unlike most of the veins of the heart, it is NOT a tributary to the coronary sinus
Left anterior descending artery (LAD) aka anterior interventricular branch of left coronary artery; it accompanies the great cardiac vein
Circumflex branch of left coronary artery has several unnamed branches that supply the posterior wall of the LV; accompanies the coronary sinus in the coronary sulcus
Right coronary artery beginning of this artery is in the coronary sulcus between the right auricle and ascending aorta
Anterior right atrial branch of right coronary artery arises close to the origin of the right coronary artery and ascends along the anterior wall of the RA toward the superior vena cava; gives rise to the sinoatrial (SA) nodal branch which supplies the SA node
Right marginal branch of right coronary artery usually arises near the inferior border of the heart; accompanies the small cardiac vein along the inferior border of the heart
Posterior interventricular branch/artery courses along the posterior interventricular sulcus to the heart apex and anastomoses with the anterior interventricular branch of left coronary artery; accompanies the middle cardiac vein
Artery to the atrioventricular node arises from the right coronary artery at the crux of the heart (the point where the posterior interventricular sulcus meets the coronary sulcus)
Conducting system of the heart Impulses from SA node pass through RA wall to the AV node. Impulses from AV node pass in the AV bundle through the membranous IV septum. AV bundle divides into R and L bundles on either side of the muscular IV septum and stimulate ventricular contraction
Interventricular septum separates the heart ventricles; has a muscular part and membranous part
Right atrioventricular valve aka Tricuspid valve lies between the RA and RV; prevents backflow of blood into the right atrium; has 3 cusps (anterior, septal, posterior)
Chordae tendineae “heart strings” – attaches the free edge of each tricuspid valve cusp to the papillary muscles
Papillary muscles arise from the walls of the right ventricle; 3 muscles: anterior (largest), septal (very small, may be multiple), posterior; chordae tendineae of each papillary muscle attach to the adjacent sides of two valve cusps
Trabeculae carneae muscular ridges on the inner surface of right ventricular wall
Septomarginal trabecular (moderator band) extends from the interventricular septum to the base of the anterior papillary muscle; contains part of the right bundle of the conducting system which stimulates the anterior papillary muscle
conus arteriosus (infundibulum) cone-shaped portion of the RV inferior to the opening of the pulmonary trunk; its inner wall is smooth
pulmonary valve lies between RV and pulmonary artery; has 3 semilunar cusps: anterior, right, left
fibrous nodule and two lunules each semilunar valve cusp has these; they help to seal the valve cusps and prevent backflow of blood during diastole
4 pulmonary veins arranged in pairs, 2 from each lung that drain oxygenated blood into the LA; has 2 cupsps (anterior, posterior)
Features of the left atrium valve of the foramen ovale on the interatrial septum openign into the left auricle opening of the left atrioventricular valve
Left Atrioventricular valve aka mitral aka bicuspid valve; lies between LA and LV
thymus active lymphatic organ in a newborn, gets replaced by CT and fat after puberty. in adults lies immediately posterior to the manubrium of the sternum
superior vena cava carries deoxy blood from head and upper extremities back to heart; formed by the meeting of the R and L brachiocephalic veins; passes anterior to the root of the right lung
R and L brachiocephalic veins formed by the union of each corresponding internal jugular vein and subclavian vein at the root of the neck posterior to the sternoclavicular joint; L brachiocephalic vein is usually longer than the R
azygos vein unilateral vessel that ascends in the thorax to the right side of the vertebral column; transports deoxy blood from the posterior thorax and abs into the superior vena cava
R brachiocephalic vein receives lymph from right lymph duct; accompanied by the right phrenic vein
L brachiocephalic vein 2x longer than the right; runs obliquely down and behind the manubrium, crosses roots of 3 major branches of aorta; receives lymph from thoracic duct
Aortic arch begins at 2nd right sternocostal joint and arches superiorly to the left; anterior to the R pulmonary artery and bifurcation of trachea; passes over root of R lung; ends at T4 body of vertebra
Ascending aorta begins at aortic orifice; ascends to 2nd right sternocostal joint
Recurrent laryngeal nerve there are 2 of them (R and L); is a branch of the vagus nerve that supplies all the intrinsic muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid muscles
Path of R vagus nerve enters thorax anterior to right subclavian artery, descends on right side of trachea, passes posterior to root of R lung, continues to esophagus and to the abdomen
Path of L vagus nerve enters mediastinum between L common carotid and L subclavian arteries, descends with L phrenic nerve to aortic arch, passes posterior root of L lung, continues as single nerve to esophagus (its fibers contribute to the esophageal plexus) and to the abs
Tracheobronchial lymph nodes found in the posterior mediastinum; are some of the lymph nodes that surround the esophagus; located around the trachea near its bifurcation
Tracheal rings C-shaped rings of cartilage that support the trachea; the open part of the "C" is located posteriorly
Carina a ridge of cartilage found on the inner surface of the tracheal bifurcation
Oblique pericardial sinus a wide recess in the posterior wall of the pericardial sac; bound laterally by entrance of the pulmonary veins and vound inferiorly by the orifice of the inferior vena cava
Esophagus muscular tube that sits to the right of the midline; lies immediately posterior to the left atrium/ventricle
Thoracic aorta arterial vascular supply of the esophagus; a continuation of the descending aorta and contained in the posterior mediastinal cavity
Esophageal plexus of nerves covers the surface of the esophagus; innervates the inferior portion of the esophagus; forms the anterior and posterior vagal trunks
Vagal trunks found on the inferior part of the esophagus just before it passes through the diaphragm with the esophagus and innervate a large part of the GI tract
posterior intercostal veins
Route of thoracic duct Inferiorly it passes through the diaphragm with the thoracic aorta; superiorly it terminates by draining into the junction of the L internal jugular vein and L subclavain vein; crosses anterior surface of R posterior intercostal arteries & hemizygos vein
Hemizygos vein and accessory hemizygos veins Cross the bodies of the 8-9th thoracic vertebrae and terminate by draining into the azygous vein
Intercostal nerve arise from the ventral rami of the upper 11 thoracic spinal nerves; each divides to give a lateral cutaneous branch near the midaxillary line
Sympthathetic trunk on both sides of the thorax; inferiorly it crosses the heads of ribs 2-9; inferior to rib 9 it lies more anteriorly on the sides of the thoracic vertebral bodies; it has 1 sympathetic ganglion for each thoracic vertebral level
2 rami communicantes white and gray ramus communicans; connects each intercostal nerve with its corresponding thoracic sympathetic ganglion; impossible to distinguish from each other based on color but the more lateral of the two is the white ramus
Greater splanchnic nerve arises from the sympathetic trunk; found on the sides of vertebral bodies T5-T9; the sympathetic trunk is located posterior to the greater splanchnic nerves
Lesser splanchinic nerves arises from 10-11th thoracic sympathetic ganglia; the least splanchnic nerve arises from the 12th
Created by: Touro2021