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Medical Terminology

Terms Pertaining to the Body as a Whole

TermDefinition
adipose tissue collection of fat cells
cartilage flexible connective tissue attached to bones at joints
epithelial cells skin cells that cover the outside of the body and line the internal surfaces of organs
histologist specialist who studies tissues
larynx "voice box"; located in the upper part of the trachea
pharynx Throat
pituitary gland endocrine gland at base of brain
thyroid gland endocrine gland that surrounds trachea in neck
trachea "windpipe"
ureter one of two tubes, each leading from a single kidney to urinary bladder (2)
urethra tube from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body (1)
viscera internal organs
anabolism process of building up large proteins from amino acids
catabolism process of breaking down nutrients into simpler substances; energy is released.
cell membrane structure surrounding and protecting the cell; monitors what enters and exits the cell
chromosomes rod-shaped structures in the nucleus that genes (DNA); 46 chromosomes (23 pairs)
cytoplasm all material that is outside of the nucleus but still within the membrane of the cell
DNA chemical withing each chromosome, sequences that direct cell activities of the cell
endoplasmic reticulum network of canals withing the cytoplasm of the cell; where large proteins are made from smaller protein pieces
genes regions of DNA within each chromosome
karyotype picture of chromosomes in the nucleus of the cell
mitochondria provide the principal source of energy
nucleus control center of the cell
abdominal cavity space below chest; contains liver, stomach, gallbladder, and intestines
cranial cavity space in the head containing the brain and surrounded by the skull
diaphragm muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities
dorsal (posterior) pertaining to the back
mediastinum centrally located space outside of and between the lungs
pelvic cavity space below abdomen containing portions of the intestines, rectum, urinary bladder, and reproductive organs.
peritoneum double-folded membrane surrounding each lung
pleural cavity space between pleural layers
spinal cavity space withing the spinal column containing spinal cord
thoracic cavity space in the chest containing the hear, lungs, bronchial tubes, trachea, esophagus, and other organs.
ventral (anterior) pertaining to the front
hypochondriac right and left upper regions beneath the ribs
epigastric middle upper region above the stomach
lumbar right and left middle regions near the waist
umbilical central region near the navel
inguinal right and left lower regions near the groin
hypogastric middle lower region below the umbilical region
RUQ right upper quadrant
LUQ left upper quadrant
RLQ right lower quadrant
LLQ left lower quadrant
cervical neck region; C1 to C7
thoracic chest region T1 to T12
lumbar loin (waist) region L1 to L5
sacral region of the sacrum S1 to S5
coccygeal region of the coccyx (tailbone)
vertebra single backbone
vertebrae backbones
spinal column bone tissue surrounding the spinal cavity
disk (disc) pad of cartilage between vertebrae
anterior (ventral) front side of body
posterior (dorsal) back side of body
deep away from the surface
superficial on the surface
proximal near the point of attachment to the trunk; near the beginning
distal far from the point of attachment
inferior below another structure
superior above another structure
medial pertaining to the middle
lateral pertaining to the side
supine laying on the back
prone laying on the belly
frontal (coronal) plane divides front and back
sagittal (lateral) plane divides left from right
transverse (axial) plane divides top from bottom
abdomin/o abdomen
adip/o fat
anter/o front
bol/o to cast (throw)
cervic/o neck
chondr/o cartilage
chrom/o color
coccyg/o coccyx
crani/o skull
cyt/o cell
dist/o far, distant
dors/o back portion of the body
hist/o tissue
ili/o ilium (part of the pelvic bone)
inguin/o groin
kary/o nucleus
later/o side
lumb/o lower back
medi/o middle
nucle/o nucleus
pelv/i pelvis, hip region
poster/o back, behind
proxim/o nearest
sacr/o sacrum
sarc/o flesh
spin/o spine, backbone
thel/o nipple
thorac/o chest
trache/o trachea, windpipe
umbilic/o navel, umbilicus
ventr/o belly side of the body
vertebr/o vertebra(e)
vescer/o internal organs
ana- up
cata- down
epi- above
hypo- below
inter- between
meta- change
-eal pertaining to
-iac pertaining to
-ior pertaining to
-ism process, condition
-ose pertaining to, full of
-plasm formation
-somes bodies
-type picture, classification
Created by: hannahpoulsen