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within muscle is innermost connective tissue layerthat surrounds each muscle cell fiber endomysium
around muscle: surrounds bundles of muscle fibers called fascicles. dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds whole skeleton perimysium
upon muscle: a layer of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds whole skeletal muscle epimysium
___ stimulare muscle fibers to contract moror neurons
highly ordered repeating units of myofilaments sarcomeres
two strands of ___ form a double helix extending the length of the actin myofilament F actin (fibrous)
___: an elongated protein winds along the groove of the F actin double helix tropomyosin
___ is composed of 3 subunits: one that binds to actin, a second that binds to tropomyosin, and a third that binds to calcium ions troponin
the _____ complex regulates the interaction between active sites on _____, _____ tropomyosin/troponin complex, G actin, myosin
___: filamentous network of protein. serves as attatchment for actin myofilaments Z disk
from Z disks to ends of thick filaments I bands
length of thick filaments A bands
region in A band where actin and myosin don't overlap H zone
middle of H zone, delicate filaments holding myosin in place M line
in muscle fibers, __ and __ bands of parallel myofibrils are aligned A and I
elastic chains of amino acids; make muscles extensible and elastic tetin filaments
actin myofilaments sliding over myosin to shorten sarcomeres sliding filament model
___ system controls contraction through ____ ____ nervous, action potentials
ligands are molecules that bind to receptors: ex: neurotransmitters ligand-gated
open and close in response to small voltage changes across plasma membrane voltage-gated
inside of plasma membrane becomes less negative. if change reaches threshold ___ occurs depolarization
return of resting membrane potential. repolarization
spread from one location to another. action potential doesnt move along the membrane; new action potential at each successive location propagate
number of action potential produced per unit of time frequency
___ muscle: voluntary skeletal
origin in primary motor ends coricospinal neurons
extrapyramidal neurons: ___,___,___,___ tectospinal, vestibulospinal, rubrospinal, reticulospinal origin
origin tectal region of midbraine tectospinal
originin vestibular nuclei and cerebellum vestibulospinal
origin in red nucleus of pons rubrospinal
originin reticular formation of brain stem reticulospinal
large type A myelinated nerves spinal motor neurons
ventral horn of spinal cord cell bodies
skeletal muscle fiber at the neuromuscular junction final synapse
one sommatic motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle cells it stimulates motor unit
one nerve cell supplies on average ___ muscle cells that all contract in unison 150
total strength of contraction depends on how ___ motor units are activated and how ___ the motor units are how many,large
___: axon terminal resting in an invagination of the sarcolemma. synapse.
neuromuscular junction is made up of :. presynaptic terminal, synaptic cleft, postsynaptic membrane (motor end plate).
___: axon terminal with synaptic vesicles. presynaptic terminal.
____ blocks release of neurotransmitter at the NMJ so muscle contraction cannot occur botulinum toxin
____ is found in improperly canned food bacteria (clostridum botulinum)
botulinum toxin: death occurs from paralysis of ____ diaphragm.
derived from clostridum botulinum toxin botox
plant poison used by s. american indians for poison arrows curare
causes muscle paralysis by blocking ACh receptors, flaccid paralysis curare
used to relax muscle during surgery curare
antichoinesterase agent neostigmine
blocks removal of ACh from receptors so strengthens weak muscle contractions of myasthenia gravis neostigmine
antidote for curare after surgery is finished neostigmine
inhibit Acherase, spastic paralysis of skeletal muscle organophosphate
mechanism where an action potential causes muscle fiber contraction excitation-contraction coupling
excitation-contraction coupling involves: sarcolemma, transverse tubules, terminal cisternae, sarcoplasmic reticulum, triad, Ca2+, troponin
Created by: rchil967



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