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AnP Ch 5

Chapter 5

Epidermis Superficial Region. Consist of epithelial tissue and is avascular
Dermis Underlies epidermis. Mostly fibrous connective tissue. Vascular.
Hypodermis Superficial Fascia. Subcutaneous layer deep to skin.
Keratinocytes produce fibrous keratin. Top layer of skin.
Melanocytes Produce pigment Melanin.
Dendritic Langerhans cells. Star shaped macrophages.
Tactile Merkel Cells. Sensory receptors that sense touch.
Thick skin contains 5 layers and is found in high abrasion areas. Hands and feet.
Thin skin contains only 4 strata.
Stratum Basale Basel Layer. Deepest. Produces new cells.
Stratum Spinosum Prickly Layer. Keratinicytes in this layer appear spikey.
Stratum Granulosum Granular layer. Keratinization begins. Dehydrate.
Stratum Lucidum Found only in thick skin.
Stratum Corneum Horny layer. hard moister barrier. Most prodominat layer. shingles stacked up.
Apoptosis program cell death.
Dermis true skin. good stuff. strong flexible, fibroblast and macrophages. Nerves and blood vessels. Hair folicles. oil glands and sweat glands.
Papillary Layer Loose fibers allow phagocytes to patrol for microorganisms.
Dermal Papillae sends finger like projections up into epidermis. bumps and ridges in dermis
Friction Ridges Enhance gripping ability. Finger Prints
Reticular Layer Predominate layer. 80%of dermal thickness.
Cutaneous Plexus Network of blood vessels
Flexure Lines Dermal folds at or near joints. lines in the bends from lots of movement.
Striae Stretch Marks
Melanin Pigments. Melanasites make it. made in skin.
Carotene Yellow to orange pigment. Can be converted to vitamin A.
Hemoglobin Pinkish hue of fair skin is due to lower levels of melanin.
Homeostatic Imbalance excessive sun expossure damages skin. elastic fibers clump causeing skin to become leathery.
Cyanosis Blue skin color. low oxyenation
Erythema Red. Fever, Hypertension, allergy
Pallor Blanching or pale color. Pass out
Jaundice Yellow cast. liver disorders.
Hairs also called pili. hard keratin.
Shaft area that extends above scalp.
Root Living part. area with in scalp
Parts of hair shaft Medulla, Cortex and Cuticle
Medulla Central core of large cells and air spaces
Cortex Several layers of flattened cells surrounding medulla
Cuticle Outer layer consisting of overlapping layers of single cells.
Hair matrix activily dividing area of bulb that produces hair cells.
Arrector Pili small band of smooth muscle attached to follicle.
Vellus Hair Vellum. pale, fine body hair on newborns.
Terminal Hair coarse long hair. Scalp and eyebrows.
Hirsutism Facial hair in male pattern on a female.
Alopecia hair loss in both sexes after age 40
Nail matrix thickened portion of bed responsible for nail growth.
Nail Folds skin folds that overlap border of nail
Eponychium nail fold that projects onto surface of nail body. Cuticle
Hyponychium Area under free edge of plate that accumulates dirt
Sudoriferous Glands Sweat glands.
Eccrine Merocrine, sweat glands on palms. Soles and forehead.
Apocrine sweat glands on axillary and groin from puberty.
Ceruminous Glands lining of external ear canal. secreate ear wax.
Mammary Glands secrete milk
Sebaceous Glands Widly distributed oily holocrine secretion.
Protection Chemical, Physical and Biological barrier
Chemical Barrier Skin secretes many chemicals like sweat
Acid mantle low pH of skin retards bacterial multiplation.
Physical Barrier Flat and dead. Stratum Corneum. Block most water.
Biological Barrier Epidermis contains phagocytic cells. Dermis contains macrophages. DNA can absorb harmful UV radiation.
Body Temp Regulation Under normal temp sweat glands produce about 500 ml a day of unsociable sweat.
Cutaneous Sensory receptors Nervous system. outside stimulation.
Metabolic Functions skin can synthesize vitamian D needed for calcium absorption in intestine.
Keratinocytes Produces protein. activate hormones
Basal Cell Carcinoma Least milignant and most common. Sun exposed areas. grows slowly
Squamuos cell carcinoma second most common type. can metastasize if left long enough.
Melanoma Most dangerous, highly metastatic and resistant to chemotherapy.
The Rule of Nine The burn percentage of the body.
First degree Epidermal damage only. Red does not blanch.
Second degree Epidermal and upper dermal damage. Blisters appear.
Third Degree Entire thickness of skin involved. requires a graft to heal.
Dedridement Removal of dead skin tissue.
Created by: Jaytee07