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Test 2

Gross Anatomy

Superficial Muscle Group Trapezius latissimus dorsi
Middle Back muscle group rhomboid major and minor levator scapulae
Deep Back Muscle Group Erector spinae, serratus posterior
Trapezius Attachments occipital bone, nuchal ligament, vertebral spines, spine of scapula, acromion process, distal clavicle
nuchal back of neck
nucal ligament attachment points vertebral prominens, all vertebral spines,
nuchal ligament prevents hyperflexion of neck
Latissimus function adduction of shoulder and humerus, extension of humerus and shoulder, medial rotation of humerus
Levator Scapulae attachments cervical transverse processes, vertebral border of scapula
Rhomboid attachments vertebral spines, vertebral border of scapula
Rhomboid group functions elevation of scapula, retraction of scapula, downward rotation of scapula
splenius attachments vertebral spines, mastoid process, upper cervical transverse processes
Semisplinalis capitis attachments vertebral transverse proc's, occipital bone
Nuchal Function extend neck, rotate neck, laterally flex head
erector spinae spinalis, longissimus, iliocostalis
Erector spinae functions stabilize spine, extend spine, rotate trunk, laterally flex trunk
Serratus posterios superior, inferior, respiratory functions
Spinal cord is stabilized by anterior articulations, posterior (synovial) articulations (zygapophyseal, rib joints), interspinal ligaments, muscles
Anulus fibrosus fibrocartilage, fibers arranged circularly
nucleus pulposis elastic, cartilage-like ball, semifluid
Herniated slipped disk nucleus pulposis is forced out of its normal position, goes through annulus, usually moves posterorly, may impinge spinal nerves
Interspinal ligaments run between adjacent verts, limit movement.Anterior and posterior longitudinal, interspinous & supraspinous, ligamentum flavum
Meninges connective tissue that protect the CNS,
3 layers of spinal cord protection dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
Capitulum articulates with the radius
Trochlea articulates with the ulna
Hand consist of 8 carpals, 5 metacarpals, 14 phalanges
Metacarpal composed of head, base, shaft
Fingers consist of 14 phalanges, 3 each finger with 2 on thumb
Radiocarpal joint formed b/w distal end of radius, scaphoid, and lunate
Triangular fibrocartilage permits the hand to move independently of the ulna during supination and pronation of the radius
Pisiform DOES NOT contribute to radiocarpal joint
Intercarpal joints joints b/w carpals
Midcarpal joint intercarpal joints that fall b/w the proximal and distal row of carpals
Carpometacarpal Joints Fall b/w distal row of carpals and the bases of the metacarpals
Greater Occipital nerve emerges through the sup fibers fo trapezius near the origin of the skull
Triangle of Auscultation small triangular gap medial to the scapula b/w trapezius and latissimus dorsi
Rhomboids are supplied by dorsal scapular nerve and the descending scapular artery and vein
Portion of the neural arc in the spinal column that connects the transverse spines and zygapophyses laterally with the dorsal spine on the midline Lamina
Superficial muxcle of the hypothenar eminence on anterolateral aspect of the 5th metacarpal. Abductor digiti minimi
Muscle that arises from the pisiform and inserts on the ULNAR side of the base of the proximal phalanx. Abductor digiti minimi
What is the ligament that connects the dorsal spines of the vertebrae the entire length of the spine. Supraspinous Ligament.
Ligament that forms the ligamentum nuchae in the cervical region. Supraspinous Ligament.
Ligament that joins the dorsal spines of successive vertebrae. Interspinous Ligament
Describe the difference between the the interspinous and supraspinous ligaments. Interspinous are ligaments that run between each spinous process and the supra(above)spinus is continuous attaching all spinus processes.
Which ligament attaches to the skull as well as the spinus processes? What is the area called that attaches to the skull Supraspinous ligament and Ligamentum nuchae.
Tough outermost layer of meninges around the spinal cord. Dura Mater
List the 3 protective layers covering the spinal cord proximal to distal Pia mater Arachnoid mater and Dura mater
The CSF is located between which two layers covering the spinal cord? Arachnoid mater and Pia mater
Area filled with CSF and veins draining the spinal cord. Subarachnoid Space.
Spinal nerve - several fiber bundles, or rootlest, emerging from the posterior portion of the spinal cord Dorsal root
Spinal nerve - several fiber bundles, or rootlest, emerging from the anterior portion of the spinal cord Ventral root
Which nerve roots are responsible for delivering motor messages Ventral roots
Which nerve roots are responsible for delivering Sensory messages Dorsal roots
Ligament formed by the pia mater. Extends laterally and connects to the dura. Denticulate Ligament
This ligament is anteriorly placed and allows for anterior flexibility during abduction Coracoacromial ligament
This ligament prevents independent movement of the clavicle and scapula in the vertical plane Coracoclavicular ligament
Interspinal ligaments function is to protect exiting spinal nerves
When will anterior ligament be tightest? extension of spine
when will post ligament be tightest? flexion of spine
How mant spinal nerves come off cervial vertebrae 8 because 2 come off C1
How many total spinal nerves? 31 pair total
myotomes muscle area innervated by spinal nerves
What anchors the spinal cord? Filum terminale
What are the attachment points of serratus anterior? most ribs and medial border of scapula
Function of serratus anterior protraction of scapula, upward rotation of scapula
What two muscles are synergist to move humerus pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi
What 4 muscles make up rotatot cuff? supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis
Scapula floats in an envelope of muscle on the thorax and its only bony attachement point is the acromion True
Function of rotator cuff muscles is stabilize and hold humeral head on the glenoid, adjustory movements of the humeral head, rotational movements of humeral head
Rotator cuff muscles are NOT primary movers of the shoulder TRUE
Teres Major attachement points lateral border of scapula and interbercular sulcus of anterior humerus
function of Teres major same as latissimus dorsiadduction of humerusextension of humerusmedial rotation of humerus
Deltoid attachment points distal clavicle, acromion process, lateral scapular spine, humeral midshaft (deltoid tuberosity)
Function of deltoid when the shoulder is in neutral, full deltoid contraction produces elevation of the humeral head. This action resist downward pull from gravity and loads
Funtion of deltoid cont abduction of shoulder, early in abd the rot cuff m. contract to offset deltoid elevation, keeping the head aligned on the glenoid
Anterior deltoid assist with horizontal flexion
posterior deltoid assist with horizontal extension
What holds the clavicle in place 1. thorax 2. muscle attachments
This joint has thickening of fibrous joint capsule and includes a fibrous articular disc that stabilizes the joint during abd of the shoulder Acromioclavicular ligament
Shoulder separation occurs subluxation of the AC joint, downward blow to the acromion, clavicle remains in place
This ligament contains and protects the suprascapular nerve Suprascapular ligament
This ligament connects greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus and holds the long head of the biceps in place Transverse humeral ligament
This ligament connects proximal clavicle to costal cartilage of rib #1 Costoclavicular ligament
Dislocation of the humeral head requires trauma to BOTH sides of the capsule True
This ligament is important in inhibiting anterior translation of the head Glenohumeral ligaments
What is housed within the quadrangler space? axillary nerve and posterior humeral circumflex artery and vein
What is housed within the triangular space? Circumflex scapular branch of the subscapular artery
The suprascapular nerve supplies supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles
What happens if the serratus is paralyzed? Winged scapula occurs- the vertebral border protrudes dorsally under the skin
Medial rotation of humerus tightens posterior portion of the capsule
Circumduction rotation of humerus tightens the entire capsule
Created by: mclisu