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Stack #2724152

developmental

QuestionAnswer
Developmental biology study of the sequence of events from the fertilization of a mature ovum by a sperm cell to the formation of an adult organism
embryonic period from fertilization through the eighth week of development
fetal period begins at week 9 and continues until birth occupies the remainder of pregnancy, from the 9th through the 40th week Tissues and organs that developed during embryonic period continue to grow and differentiate fetus is less vulnerable to the damaging eff
neonatal period covers the first 28 days after birth
Fertilization about seven hours after ejaculation, sperm are not capable of fertilization ne capacitated sperm must penetrate the corona radiata (granulosa cells left over from the 3o follicle) and the zona pellucida (a clear glycoprotein layer between the corona radi
process called capacitation perm involved in the final action undergo a series of functional changes that cause their tails to beat even more vigorously and prepare their plasma membranes to fuse with that of the 2o oocyte’s -Only capacitated sperm are capable of responding to the
Embryonic Period - several rounds of cell division, 3-4 days after fertilization a solid ball of cells (blastocyst) enters the uterine cavity
Implantation is the attachment of the blastocyst to the endometrium 7–8 days after fertilization
formation of a embryonic disc and 4 extraembryonic membranes The embryonic disc is composed of cells which develop to become the fetus The extraembryonic membranes will form the amniotic sac around the developing embryo, the umbilical cord and placenta
rapid rate of cell division at the time leaves the developing embryo very susceptible to teratogens (can cause -incomplete closure of the spinal tubes -eyes and heart, -major organs are affected -low birth rate )
embryonic disc, visible as early as 3 weeks post-fertilization, develops into the 3 primary germ layers, from which all the tissues of the embryo derive
Ectoderm differentiates into the tissues of the brain and nerves, and the epidermis of the skin
Mesoderm is a loosely organized connective tissue (mesenchyme) that matures to form blood, muscles, bones, and other connective tissue derivatives
Endoderm gives rise to the epithelial lining of the digestive tract, respiratory tract, and several other organs; also the smooth endothelial lining of blood vessels
placenta formed by the chorionic villi of the embryo and the decidua basalis of the endometrium of the mother. -site of nutrient and waste exchange by diffusion, yet prevents any mixing of fetal and mothers blood
placenta functions before Forms a barrier between mother and embryo (blood is not exchanged) Delivers nutrients, oxygen and IgG (maternal antibodies) Removes waste from embryonic blood Becomes an endocrine organ (produces hormones) and takes over for the corpus luteum Es
Teratogens can cross the placental barrier and cause serious developmental abnormalities and sometimes death, especially during the embryonic period
rate of fetal growth During the last 2.5 months of intrauterine life, half of the full-term weight is added head becomes more proportionate to body By week 3; fetus assumes upside-down position preparation for labor
Gestation time of prenatal development; 40 weeks (9 months), divided into 3 3-month trimesters
First Trimester embryological and early fetal development; organ systems laid down
Second Trimester: development of organ systems
Third Trimester rapid fetal growth; organ systems functional eighth week of embryonic development, all the organ systems have been laid down in rudimentary form
3 weeks Notochord forms, which will form the brain and spinal chord The heart begins to form as a single tube which is able to contract Preg sign- Breast Changes, Amenorrhea, Nausea, vomiting
6 weeks Trachea has developed, lungs begin to develop fetal circulation begins Preg sign: Nausea, vomiting, Urinary Frequency, Positive Pregnancy Test Visualization on Ultrasound, Fetal Heart Sounds
8 weeks: all systems present in basic form head ~ 50% of body length; all major brain regions present bone formation begins Preg sign:Nausea, vomiting, Urinary Frequency, Positive Pregnancy Test
9-12 weeks (3rd month): bone marrow begins making blood cells sex can be detected from genitals Preg sign: Nausea, vomiting, Urinary Frequency, Fatigue, Positive Pregnancy Test
13-16 weeks (4th month): blinking of eyes and sucking motions occur body begins to outgrow head bones are distinct with joint cavities eyes and ears assume normal position and shape begins to look human Preg sign: Quickening, Braxton Hicks Contractions
17-20 weeks (5th month): vernix caseosa and langugo cover body Preg sign: Quickening Fetal Movements Palpated
21-30 weeks (6th and 7th months): substantial weight gain – may survive if born ~ 27 weeks) finger and toe nails are present testes enter scrotum in 7th month Fetal Movements Palpated
30-40 weeks (term; 8th and 9th months): fat laid down in subcutaneous tissue surfactant production adequate by ~ 32 weeks, post-partum levels by 35
Created by: 1228861590591703