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Chapter 6

TermDefinition
Afferent nerves Sensory transmitters that send impulses from receptors in the skin, muscles, and joints to the central nervous system.
Autonomic nervous system Branch of the nervous system that controls involuntary body functions
Cell body Part of an axon that contains a nucleus
Central nervous system The brain and spinal cord
Dendrites Branches of a neuron that collects stimuli and transport them to the cell body
Efferent nerves Motor transmitters that carry impulses form the central nervous system out to the muscles and glands
Myelin sheath The fatty bands of insulation surrounding axon fivers
Neurilemma The thin membranous sheath enveloping a nerve fiber
Neuroglia Non-neural tissue that forms the interstitial or supporting elements of the CNS; also known as glial cells
Nodes of Ranvier The uninsulated gaps in the myelin sheath of a nerve fiber where the axon is exposed
Peripheral nervous system All parts of the nervous system external to the brain and spinal cord
Somatic nervous system Branch of the nervous system that stimulates the skeletal muscles
Synapse The intersecton between a neuron and another neuron, a muscle, a gland, or a sensory receptor
Autonomic reflexes Involuntary stimuli transmitted to cardiac and smooth muscle
Conductivity the ability of a neuron to transmit a nerve impulse
Depolarixed a condition in which the inside of a cell membranes is more positively charged than the outside
Nerve Impulse electrical charge that travels along a nerve fiber when stimulated
Polarixed a condition that occurs when the inside of a cell membrane is more negatively charges that the outside
Reflexes simple rapid involuntary programmed responses to stimuli
Refractory period the time between the completion of the action potential and repolarization
Repolarixation the reestablishment of a polarixation
Saltatory conduction the rapid skipping of an action potential from node to node on myelinated neurons
Somatic reflexes involuntary stimuli transmitted to skeletal muscles from neural arcs in the spinal cord.
Cerebellum Secton of the brain that coordinates body movements including balance
Cerebrum The larges part of the brain consisting of the right and left hemisperes
Diencenphalon Area of the brain that includes the spithalamus, thalamus, metathalamus and hypothalamus also known as the inter brain
Epithalamus the uppermost portion of the diencephalon which includes hte pineal gland and regulates sleep-cycle hormones
Fissures the uniformly positioned deep grooves in the brain
Frontal lobes sections of the brain located behind the forehead
Hypothalamus a portion of the diencephalon which regulates functions such as metabolism, heart rate, and blood pressure
Lobes the name for the four regions of the brain- frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal
Medulla oblongata the lower portion of the brain stem which regulates heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing and controls several reflexes
Meninges three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
Midbrain relay station for sensory and motor impulses; located on the superior end of the brain stem
occipital lobes sections of the brain located behind the parietal lobes; integrate sensory information form the skin, internal organs, muscles and joints
Parietal lobes sections of the brain located behind the frontal lobes; integrate sensory information from the skin. internal organs muscles, and joints
Pons the section of the brain located below the midbrain that plays a role in regulating breathing
Primary motor cortex outer region of the brain in the frontal lobes that sends neural impulses to the skeletal muscles.
Primary somatic sensory cortex outer region of the brain in the parietal lobes that interprets sensory impulses received from the skin internal organs, muscles, and joints
Spinal cord a column of nerve tissue that extends form the brain stem to the beginning of the lumbar region of the spine
Temporal lobes the most inferior portions of the brain; responsible for speech, hearing, vision, memory, and emotion
Thalamus the largest portion of the diencephalon, which communicates sensory and motor information between the body and the cerebral cortex
Cranial nerves 12 pairs of nerves that originate in the brain and relay impulses to and from the PNS
Craniosacral division The parasympathetic nervous system, in which nerves originate in the brain stem or sacral region of the spinal cord
Dorsal ramus The division of posterior spinal nerves that transmit motor impulses to the posterior trunk muscles and relay sensory impulses from the skin of the back
Endoneurium A delicate, connective tissue that surrounds each nerve fiber
Epineurium The tough outer covering of a nerve
Ganglion A mass of nervous tissue composed mostly of nerve-cell bodies.
Norepinephrine A neurotransmitter released by postganglionic neurons in the sympatheric nervous system
Paravertebral gangilia Mass of nerve cell bodies close to the spinal cord
Pernieurium A protective sheath that surrounds a bundle of nerve fibers
Plexuses Complex interconnections of nerves
Postganglionic neuron The second neuron in a series that transmits impulses from teh CNS
Preganglionic neuron The first neuron in a series that transmits impulses from the CNS
Spinal nerves Neural transmitters that branch from the left and right sides of the spinal cord
Thoracolumbar division The sympatheric system of nerves that lies near the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spine
Ventral ramus The anterior divisions of spinal nerves that communicate with the muscle and skin of the anterior and lateral trunk
Alzheimer's disease Condition involving a progressive loss of brain function with major consequences for memory, thinking, and behavior
Cerebral palsy A group of nervous system disorders resulting from brain damage before or during birth, or in early infance
Dementia An organic brain disease involving loss of function in two or more areas of cognition
Epilepsy A group of brain disorders characterized by repeated seizures over time
Meningitis AN infection-induced inflammation of the meniges surrounding the brain and spinal cord
Multiple sclerosis A chronic, slowly progressive sidease of the central nervous system that destroys the myelin sheath of nerve cell axons
Paraplegia Disorder characterized by loss of function below the neck
Parkinson's disease A chronic nervous system disease characterized by a slowly spreading tremor. muscular weakness, and rigidity
Quadriplegia Disorder characterized by loss of function in the lower trunk and legs
Traumatic brain injury Mild or severe trauma that can result form a violent impact to the head.
Created by: cheyannem