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Absolutism in Europe

Chapters 16-17

When sovereignty is embodied in the person of the ruler. Biggest advocate was Hobbes Absolutism
Possessing a monopoly over the instruments of justice Sovereignty
Twentieth century phenomenon that seeks to direct all facets of a state’s culture in the interest of the state Totalitarianism
Became President of the Council of ministers and the first minister of the French crown under Louis XIII in 1624. Died in 1642 Cardinal Richelieu
Influenced by Richelieu to exult the French monarchy as the embodiment of the French state. Established absolute rule. Louis XIII - (r. 1610-1643)
Became a cardinal in 1641, succeeded Richelieu and dominated the power in French government. Died in 1661 Jules Mazarin
Louis XIV had the longest reign in European history. Helped France to reach its peak of absolutist development through his palace at Versailles and his policies. "Sun King" - (r.1643-1715)
An adviser to Louis XIV who proved himself a financial genius who managed the entire royal administration. Proposed mercantilism as the best policy for the economy Jean-Babtiste Colbert
The philosophy that a state's strength depends upon it wealth Mercantilism
Dutch prince invited to be king of England (William III) after The Glorious Revolution. Joined League of Augsburg as a foe of Louis XIV. William of Orange
1713, ended Louis XIV’s attempts to gain military power and land. Marked the end of French expansionist policy. Ended the War of Spanish Succession. Peace of Utrecht
Limitation of government by law, developed in times of absolutism. Constitutionalism
Limited the power of Charles I of England. a) could not declare martial law; b) could not collect taxes; c) could not imprison people without cause; d) soldiers could not be housed without consent. Petition of Rights - (1628)
As Lord Protector of England he used his army to control the government and constituted military dictatorship Oliver Cromwell
Restored the English monarchy to Charles II, both Houses of Parliament were restored, established Anglican church, courts of law and local government. The Restoration - (1660)
no law can be suspended by the king; no taxes raised; no army maintained except by parliamentary consent. Established after The Glorious Revolution. Bill of Rights - 1689
War of Austrian Succession - (1740-48) Conflict caused by the rival claims for the dominions of the Habsburg family. Before the death of Charles VI, Holy Roman emperor and archduke of Austria, many of the European powers had guaranteed that Charles's daughter Maria Theresa would succeed him.
Members of the Prussian landed aristocracy, a class formerly associated with political reaction and militarism Junkers
Issued by Charles VI of Austria in 1713 to assure his daughter Maria Theresa gained the throne. Pragmatic Sanction
Obsessed with keeping the Habsburg empire together, issued the Pragmatic Sanction. No male heir so the empire passed to Maria Theresa. Charles VI – (r. 1711-40)
Won the War of Austrian Succession after defeating Frederick II of Prussia, but losing Silesia Maria Theresa – (r. 1740-1780)
Russian dynasty, started with Michael Romanov after the Time of Troubles and lasted until the revolution in 1917 and the execution of Nicholas II. Romanovs
German royal family who ruled Brandenburg from 1415 and later extended their control to Prussia (1525). Under Frederick I (ruled 1701-1713) the family's possessions were unified as the kingdom of Prussia Hohenzollern
First man who made modern Prussia Frederick William the Great Elector
Land owning aristocracy in early Russia Boyars
Land owning aristocracy in Hungary Magyars
term applied to anyone who opposed the policies of the French government Frondeur
Created by: rsealock