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HSF II Cardio I

Cardiovascular I - Vasculature and Cells

Cardiovascular System consists of: 1) a conducting system (blood vessels or vasculature) 2) a fluid tissue (the blood) 3) a pump (the heart)
Closed Circulation blood is contained within the heart and elements of the blood vasculature
Closed Circulation and Pressure/Volume Changes in blood volume will cause changes in pressure inside the system, thus system volume will cause changes in pressure
Direction of Blood (artery vs vein) arteries carry blood away from the heart, veins toward it. This is independent of blood oxygenation. E.G. pulmonary and system circulations
Vascular Tree Heart => tissues in arteries => distribution of nutrients in capillaries => from tissues => heart via veins. Arteries diverge, veins converge
Vascular Structure Tunica intima, tunica media, tunica adventitia (externa). Artery thick media, Vein thick adventitia
Types of Vessels 1) elastic arteries 2) muscular arteries 3) arterioles 4) capillaries 5) small, medium, and large veins
Aorta it and its initial branches are elastic arteries. They experience recoil
Elastic Recoil maintains blood pressure and blood flow during ventricular diatole. Pressure reservoir as they accept new blood from the heart
Muscular Arteries include most named arteries. they are the poster child for a typical blood vessel
Arterioles smallest branches of the arterial tree. They have a single layer of circular smooth muscle in the media. Able to produce the biggest diameter change of the lumen
Arteriole Function 1) regulate access to discrete capillary beds depending on physiological need 2) determine peripheral resistance, determining how hard the heart has to work
Capillaries Exchanging vessels. Whole purpose of the CV system is to deliver blood to and from these vessels for exchange with the cells of the body's tissues
Capillary Function Diffusion of oxygen, CO2 , nutrients, and re-absorption of waste. They require a concentration gradient
Capillary Walls endothelium only and basal lamina. No tunica media or externa. Large surface area slow blood flow for diffusion
Capillary Types Continuous, fenestrated, discontinuous (sinusoidal)
Continuous Capillaries have complete endothelial lining and basement membrane, permit diffusion of water, small solutes, and lipid-soluble materials
Fenestrated Capillaries Have pores/fenestrae in endothelial lining, complete basement membrane. Permit more rapid exchange of H2O and somewhat larger solutes between plasma and instersitial fluid
Sinusoidal Capillaries (sinusoids/discontinuous) Have gaps between adjacent endothelial cells. Discontinuous basement membrane. Permit free exchange of H2O, large plasma proteins, and formed elements between blood and interstitial fluid. Phagocytic cells monitor blood at sinusoids
Venules converge to form medium veins, and medium veins form large veins e.g. venae cavae
Blood Development from mesoderm, in the embryonic yolk sac. Perinataly and adult made in red bone marrow
Average Adult Blood Volume about 5.5 liters, or a little more than 5.5 quarts. About 7% of lean body weight, not sex dependent
Blood Characteristics Red, temp around 38C or 100.4F (internal temp, slightly alkaline, pH 7.35-7.45, 3-5X more viscous than water
Blood Functions 1) Transport dissolved subs.: hormones, O2/CO2, Nutrients, Waste 2) Thermoregulation 3) Regulation of pH 4) hemostasis
Hemostasis a property of blood that ensures small holes don't leak anymore, temporary clotting
Whole Blood suspension of formed elements in plasma (all cells and solids)
Plasma fluid including water, dissolved plasma proteins and other solutes, makes up about 50% of blood volume and is mostly water.
Formed Elements all cells and solids, causes the viscosity of blood. RBCs, WBCs, and platelets
Bilirubin makes plasma pale yellow, from a breakdown product of hemoglobin
Plasma Proteins Clotting factors (most abundant), globulins, albumins (least abundant). can only pass through sinusoids
Albumins important in maintaining partitioning of water between plasm and interstitial fluid. restricted to outside the vessels, balance water out in the body. Made in liver
alpha and beta-globulins have enzymatic activity and/or are transport proteins. Made in liver
gamma globulins antibodies and are a part of the body's soluble immune response. made by lymphocytes
Clotting Factors important in homeostasis
Origins of Plasma Proteins 90% made in liver, but antibodies are made by plasma cells
Heredity Spherocytosis mutations that disrupt RBC cytoskeleton proteins which cause RBC spherical configuration
Spherocytes unusually fragile and are rapidly removed from circulation, spherical blood cells
RBC Cytoskeleton proteins that form the RBC biconcave shape and allow them to bend through tiny blood vessels
Differentiation of RBCs involves extrusion of the nucleus and the elaboration of a single protein, hemoglobin
Mature RBCs lack organelles
Hemoglobin molecule consists of 4 polypeptide chains and 4 heme groups. globin consists of 2 alpha chains and 2 beta chains: a2b2
Hb Saturation Curve logarithmic graph in which the origin is 100% deoxyhemoglobin or 0% oxyhemoglobin
Myoglobin red protein containing heme that carries and stores oxygen in muscle cells
Primary Polycythemia due to factors intrinsic to red cell precursors e.g. when excess RBCs are produced as a result of an abnormality of the bone marrow
Secondary Polycythemia due to increased erythropoietin (EPO) production either in response to chronic hypoxia (low blood O2 level) or from an erythropoietin secreting tumor
Agglutination not the same thing as clotting, when RBC antigens and plasma antibodies complex
Acute Transfusion Reaction when donor cells agglutinate and target recipient's pre-existing antibodies
Hematopoietic Tissue contains hematopoietic stem cells and make formed elements
Red Bone Marrow form all formed elements after birth, contain pluripotent stem cells as well as the differentiating RBCs, WBCs, and platelets
Lymphoid Lineage Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells produces lymphocytes
Myeloid Lineage pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells produce all other blood cells
Reticulocytes young erythrocytes with granular or reticular filamentous structures, 0.5-2% of all RBCs
Erythropoietin (EPO) renal hormone made by peritubular fibroblasts in the renal cortex. Causes myeloid stem cells to turn into RBCs
Stimulation of Erythropoietin anything that decreases O2 content of blood: RBC numbers, O2 availability, increased O2 demand, insufficient hemoglobin, etc.
RBC Lifespan 120 days
Bilirubin sourced by non-iron heme, causes a yellow pigment and jaundice, also makes urine yellow
Bile incorporates bilirubin, and is essential for proper absorption of dietary lipids, some lost to intestines coloring feces
Leukocytes (WBCs) least numerous of the formed elements, the effector cells of the immune system
5 Characteristics of WBCs 1) contain nuclei and some have apparent granules 2) diapedesis 3) varying degrees of mobility 4) varying degrees of phagocytic 5) formed in red bone marrow
Positively Chemotaxic they can crawl toward the site
Diapedesis process where WBCs are able to leave blood vasculature by passing between and through the endothelium
Antigen Presentation WBC shows the immune system that there is an antigen
Granulocytes vs Agranulocytes WBCs with visible cytoplasmic granules, vs not, but all WBCs have granules
Neutrophils first responders in bacterial infection. granules contain antimicrobial or cytotoxic substances, neutral proteinases, acid hydrolases, and a pool of cytoplasmic membrane receptors
Eosinphils directed against multicellular parasites but also have roles in allergies and asthma
Basophils granules contain histamine and heparin, function in allergic inflam. and some kinda of parasitic infestation. Bilobed nucleus
Lymphocytes T and B lymphocytes, most common and effector cells in many types of immunity
Monocytes precursors to the members of the MPS, including macrophages
Created by: connorquinby