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Erythrocytes RBCs, average 4.5-5 million cells/mm3, anucleate when mature
Leukocytes granulocytes and agranular leukocytes. Nucleates cells, 5-10,000 cells/mm3, can move in and out of blood vessels in a process called emigration or diapedesis
Granulocytes Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil. High abundance of granules inside cell
Agranular Leukocytes Lymphocyte, Monocyte. no observable cytoplasmic granules
Neutrophil Granulocyte. most abundant WBC (50-80%). stain purple, 3-7 lobed nucleus, active phagocyte, #s increase during acute infections
Eosinophil Granulocyte. (2-4%), bilobed nucleus, stains red-orange, #s increase during allergies and parasite infections. Phagocyte
Basophil Granulocyte. least abundant leukocyte (<1%), large U or S-shaped nucleus, granules contain chemicals, including histamine. For inflammatory response
Lymphocyte Agranular leukocyte. (20-40%), smallest nucleus, 3 types: B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, NK cells. involved in immunologic response.
Monocyte Agranular leukocyte. (2-8%). largest leukocyte, kidney-shaped nucleus, active phagocyte.
Platelets cell fragments from megakaryocytes. irregularly shaped, 140-450,000 cells/mm3, instrumental in blood clotting
Leukocytosis an increase in the total number of white blood cells, may indicate infection, poisoning, or hemorrhage.
Leukopenia a decrease in WBC counts below 4,000/mm3, could be caused by tuberculosis, measles, or infectious hepatitis
Infectious Mononucleosis benign, lymphocyte proliferation disease caused by infection with the Epstein-Barr virus (a herpes). Swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, fever, splenomegaly, appearance of atypical T lymphocytes in blood.
Leukemia malignant disease from uncontrolled increase in abnormal WBC in bone marrow: myeloid leukemia and lymphoid leukemia
Myeloid Leukemia increase in granulocytes or thrombocytes
Lymphoid Leukemia various stages of lymphocyte development
What is the term for the central blood-containing space of a blood vessel? lumen
Name the innermost tunic (layer) of a blood vessel, what is this tunic made of? Tunica intima, squamous endothelium
Name the middle tunic of a blood vessel, what is this tunic made of? Tunica media, smooth muscle and elastin
Name the outer tunic of a blood vessel, what is this tunic made of? Tunica externa, collagen
Which tunic is thickest in an artery? Tunica Media
Which tunic is thickest in a vein? Tunica Externa
Which single tunic is present in capillaries? Tunica Intima
How is blood flow different in arteries compared to veins? Arteries carry blood away from the heart, have higher pressure. Veins opposite
What are the 3 types of arteries found in the body? Elastic, muscular, arteriole
What anatomical structures help to regulate blood flow through the capillary beds? Precapillary sphincter, shunt, true capillary, venule
What vessel type typically has the largest lumen? vein
What 3 adaptations help return venous blood to the heart? Venous valves, muscle pump, pulmonary pump
Atherosclerosis artery narrowing due to plaque buildup
Varicose Veins Veins become enlarged and twisted, distended. Only a cosmetic issue on the surface, can be dangerous deep.
Created by: connorquinby