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Ch 10-Nervous System

The Language of Medicine 11th Edition

QuestionAnswer
Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse: Dendrite
Largest part of the brain: Cerebrum
The outermost layer of the meninges: Dura Mater
A type of neuroglial cell that transports water and salts from capillaries: astrocyte
Part of the brain responsible for coordinating muscle movements and maintaining balance: cerebellum
Covering of white fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell myelin sheath
Canals in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid: ventricles
The part of the brain that controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and the secretions from the pituitary gland: hypothalamus
Chemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell: neurotransmitter
Space through which a nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between nerve and muscle or glandular cells: synapse
Microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell: axon
Posterior portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord: brainstem
Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord: cauda equina
Collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system: ganglion
Part of the brain just above the spinal cord that controls breathing, heartbeat, and size of blood vessels: medulla oblongata
Main relay center of the brain: thalamus
Sheet of nerve cells that forms a rounded ridge on the surface of the cerebral cortex: gyrus
Depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex: sulcus
Three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord: meninges
Thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges: pia mater
The combining form that means brain: -encephal/o
The combining form that means spinal cord: -myel/o
The combining form that means nerve: -neur/o
The combining form that means nerve root: -radicul/o
The combining form that means burning: -caus/o
The combining form that means feeling: -esthesi/o
The combining form that means word or phrase: -lex/o
The suffix that means strength: -sthenia
The suffix that means pain: -algia
The suffix that means seizure: -lepsy
A subdural hematoma means a collection of blood under (sub-) the ________ (dur/o). dura mater
Encephalitis is inflammation (-itis) of the ________ (encephal/o). brain
Poliomyelitis is inflammation (-itis) of the gray matter (polio-) of the ________ (myel/o). spinal cord
Neuropathy is disease (-pathy) of ________ (neur/o). nerves
Radiculitis is inflammation (-itis) of the _______ (radicul/o). nerve roots
Neuralgia is _______ (-algia) of the nerves (neur/o). pain
Bradykinesia is slowness (brady-) of ________ (-kinesia). movement
Hemiparesis is ________ (-paresis) in either the right or left half (hemi-) of the body. weakness
Ataxia is a condition of no (a-) muscular ________ (tax/o) coordination
Quadriplegia is ________ (-plegia) of all four (quadri-) limbs of the body. paralysis
Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the brain: hydrocephalus
Congenital defects in the lumbar spinal column caused by imperfect union of vertebral parts: spina bifida
Brain disorder marked by gradual and progressive dementia, personality changes, and impairment of daily functioning: AD
Degenerative disorder of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem: ALS
Chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizure activity: epilepsy
Destruction of the myelin sheath on neurons in the CNS and its replacement by plaques of sclerotic tissue: MG
Autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness of voluntary muscles: myasthenia gravis
Disease of involuntary, spasmodic, twitching movements, uncontrollable vocal sounds, and inappropriate words: Tourette syndrome
Bruising of brain tissue as a result of direct trauma to the head: cerebral contusion
Disruption in the normal blood supply to the brain; stroke: CVA
X-ray imaging of the arterial blood vessels in the brain after injection of contrast material: cerebral angiography
A method of treatment for myasthenia gravis: thymectomy
Radioactive glucose is injected and then detected in the brain to image the metabolic activity of cells: PET scan
Recording of the electrical activity of the brain: EEG
Samples of CSF are examined: cerebrospinal fluid analysis
X-ray technique that generates multiple computerized images of the brain and spinal cord: CT scan
Magnetic field and pulses of radiowave energy are used to create images of the brain and spinal cord: MRI
Use of sound waves to detect blood flow in the carotid and intracranial arteries: Doppler ultrasound studies
CSF is withdrawn from between two lumbar vertebrae for analysis: lumbar puncture
Use of a specialized instrument to locate and treat targets in the brain: stereotactic radiosurgery
Created by: misscollin