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Chapter 1

anatomy class

anatomy the science of body structures and the relationships among structures
topics of anatomy macroscopic anatomy microscopic anatomy
microscopic anatomy the study of structures that cannot be seen without magnification
macroscopic anatomy structures that can be seen with the naked eye
cytology analyzes the internal structure of cells
histoloty takes broader perspective and examines tissues
systemic studied system by system
regional studied area by area
atoms make up molecules
molecules make up organelles
proteins, lipids, carbohydrates cells manufacture these
organs tissues make up these; they are examined easily without a microscope
tissues groups of specialized cells and cell products that work together to perform specific functions
4 types of tissues 1. epithelial 2. connective 3. muscle 4. neural
anatomical position the reference point for all directional and regional terms
organism all organs work together to keep the organism healthy and alive
organ systems a group of organs that work together to perform coordinated steps
"stomach is what to the back" anterior
anterior (ventral) pertaining to the belly or situated nearer the surface of the body
directional terms the position of ones body structure or part of relative to another body structure or part
anatomical position rules the body is standing with legs together: - face and eyes are facing forward - feet flat on floor with toes forward - arms are at your side with hands facing forward
medial anything closer towards the midline of the body
inferior pertaining to or nearer the tailbone or bottom
superior anything at the top or directly near or toward the top
posterior (dorsal) everything at the back or directed near or towards the back
superficial (external) anything on the surface or toward the surface of a body or structure
distal directed away from the attachment point
proximal directed towards the attachment point
lateral the opposite of medial - near the outside in relation to the midline
parasaffital plane does not pass through the midline - divides structure into unequal left sides
midsagittal plane passes through the midline and divides the structure into equal left and right sides
sagittal planes divides a body into left and right, paralleling the longitudinal axis of the body
deep (internal) toward the interior of the body, farther from the surface
viscera all of your organs
oblique plane plane that divides the body at an angle; not parallel nor perpendicular but its a diagonal angle
frontal plane pertaining to the vertical plane dividing the body into anterior and posterior portions
transverse plane (horizontal plane) a plane passing across the body parallel to the floor and perpendicular to the bodies long axis--> divides the body into upper/superior portion and lower/inferior portion
abdominopelvic quadrant 1.right upper quadrant 2. left upper quadrant 3. right lower quadrant 4. left lower quadrant
pelvic cavity interior portion of the abdominopelvic cavity - enclosed by the bones of the pelvis - contains the last segments of the lg. intestine urinary bladder and reproductive organs
abdominal cavity extends from the inferior surface of the diaphragm to an imaginary plane extending from the inferior surface of the lowest spinal vertebrae to the anterior and superior margins of the pelvic girdle
diaphragm a dome shaped sheet of skeletal muscle that separates them and contracts to allow you to breathe at rest
abdominopelvic cavity divided into 1. superior abdominal cavity 2. an inferior pelvic cavity 3. internal chamber called the peritoneal cavity
serous membrane covering the heart pericardium peri: around cardia: heart
pericardial cavity small chamber that surrounds the heart
pleura slippery serous membrane that reduces friction as the lung expends and recoils during breathing
pleural cavities each of these cavities contain a lung, theyre lined with pleura
thoracic cavity one big large cavity located deep in the chest wall -contains the respiratory system, cardiovascular and lymphatic systems, the thymus, and inferior portions of the esophagus
function of body cavities they protect and cushion the organs
body cavities big open spaces
serous membranes are associated with.... the pleura cavity
lumbar lower back
hypo always refers to below or under
epi always means on or upon
serous fluid small amount between two layers of serous membrane --> shiny and slippery to reduce friction --> serous membranes are named for the cavities they are located in
visceral pleura covers surface of organs (viscera) inside the cavity
pleural cavity continuous double layered membrane
Created by: Shannona3



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