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VERTEBRAE

anatomy lab

TermDefinition
Vertebrae individual bones that when joined together form the vertebral column
body the large, tickened portion; each successive vertebrae line on top of one another and form the most anterior aspect of the vertebral column; used to identify the anteriuor side of each vertebrate; on posterior side should identify a bony process that sticks out
spinous process bony process that sticks out on the most posterior side of the vertebrate; angledin the inferior direction; can be utilized to determine the superior and inferior sides of each vertebrate
vertebral foramen a large hole located between the vertebral body and the spinous process
transverse processes the most lateral projections of each vertebrate; the size and shape may vary between vertebrae
pedicle the region of bone located between teh transverse processes and the vertebral body marking the lateral boundary of the vertebral coramen
lamina the region of bone located between the transverse process and the spinous process; form the posterior-lateral wall of the vertebral foramen
articular processes small projections of teh bone with facets that will join the articular facets of the adjacent vertebrate above and below ; can be found just posterior and lateral to the vertebral bodies
facets smooth surfaces
superior articular facets two articular processes with facets found on superior side of the vertebrate; had deeper groove to them than the inferior articular facets
inferior articular facets two articular processes found on the inferior side of the vertebrate
cervical vertebrae located within the neck; most superior in the vertebral column and extend from the base of the skull down to the level of the shoulders; easily identified by thgeir transverse foramen and smaller bodies
transverse foramen holes located within the transverse processes situated laterally within the vertebrate; very important artery courses through these holes.
1st cervical vertebrate cervical vertebrae that is shaped differently and plays a great role in the movement of the head; easily identified by the lack of a vertebral body and spinous process;
atlas 1st cervical vertebrae; has an anterior arch and a posterior arch
anterior arch smaller arch of the atlas
posterior arch larger arch of the atlas
2nd cervical vertebrate easily identified by the bony projection that protrudes superiorly off the body
axis the second cervical vertebrate
dens the bony projection from the body
thoracic vertebrae located just below the cervical vertebrae and extend from the level of the shoulders down to the level of the middle back; vary in size and shape with the most superior (T1) being the smallest, and the most inferior (T12) being the largest.
costal facets identifiers for thoracic vertebrae; on the transverse processes and vertebral bodies; small smooth surfaces found on the anterior side of the transverse processes; should also be two smooth grooves found on the most posterior aspect of the vertebral bodies --> location where the ribs will join with the thoracic vertebrae
lumbar vertebrae located blow the thoracic vertebrae and extend from the middle of the back down to the level of the hips; the largest of the individual vertebrae and easily identified by thgeir large vertebral bodies and resemblance of a moose when viewing them from the posterior side (check for presence of coastal facets or not to determine difference between this and other vertebrae)
sacrum was at one time 5 individual vertebrae and fused into one large whole Large triangular shaped bone with the wider end being the most superior end and the point of the triangle is the most inferior end; has a curve to it, with the inside of the curve facing the anterior side (smoother side) the thicker portion along the midline of the sacrum was once the individual bodies of the vertebrae and make up the anterior side
sacral promontory the most anterior projection at midline, along the superior border of the anterior side
sacral canal a large circular shaped passageway found coursing from superior to inferior along the posterior side of the sacrum; continuation of the vertebral canal
sacral foramina pairs of smaller holes located just lateral to the midline
auricular surfaces two large rough surfaces on the sacrum's lateral sides
coccyx was once 4 individual tiny coccygeal bones that fused into one coccyx; commonly known as the tailbone; it does not contian any typical vertebral features
primary curvatures present during fetal development at the time of birth; at this time the spine forms one large C-shaped curvature, curved in teh direction of anterior; the thoracic and sacral curvatures make up this
secondary curvatures formed later during development due to increasing muscular abilities; cervical and lumbar curvatures. Due to developing the ability to holding the head up --> first get the curvature that bends the opposite way (curved towards the posterior) once we develop the ability to stand and walk then we get the lumbar curvature (curved towards the posterior)
Created by: Shannona3