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HSF II Endocrine

Endocrine PowerPoint

Aldosterone regulates K+ concentration in plasma, brings it back down
Neuroendocrine Reflexes hypothalamus is the integrator, output to endocrine system
Common Features of Nervous system and Endocrine system 1) sometimes anatomically and/or functionally related 2) both use ligands to bind to cell receptors 3) share many chemical messengers (neurotransmitters and hormones) 4) negative feedback mechanisms 5) preserve homeostasis
Nervous system and Endocrine system differ: 1) neurotransmitters disperse and disappear quickly 2) hormones disperse and disappear slowly, long-term
Endocrine Glands develop from glandular epithelium, whose connection to the free surface is not maintained. Secretions (hormones) into the blood
Neurohormone a hormone that is produced by a neuron
Paracrine hormones that affect the body in its direct vicinity
Autocrine hormone that affects the cell it came from, self regulating
Target Tissues (or cells) the effectors in an endocrine reflex arc. Defining characteristic is that it has a receptor for that hormone
Hyposecretion/Hypersecretion too little/too much hormone released
Hyper-responsiveness/hypo-responsiveness too many/too few receptors on target
Hypo/hypersecretion of hGH Pituitary dwarf/giant
Type 1 Diabetes Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM, hyposecretion of insulin
Type 2 Diabetes Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM, hyporesponsiveness to insulin
Two Groups of Hormones Based on chemical structure: Amino acid derivatives and Lipid derivatives
Amino Acid Derivatives Hormones Tryptophan, tyrosine = catecholamines, peptides. Modification of amino acids, peptides are most common
Lipid Derivative Hormones steroid hormones and eicosinoids Eicosinoids derived from membrane phospholipids
Cholesterol parent compound for all classic steroid hormones, lipid derivative
Arachidonic Acid parent molecule for eicosinoids, phospholipidase A acts on membrane phospholipids to produce arachidonic acid.
Four Classes of Eicosinoids: important paracrines: 1) prostaglandins, 2) thromboxanes, 3) prostacyclins, 4) leukotrienes.
Cyclooxygenases prostaglandins, thromboxanes, prostacyclins. Pathway proceeds through COX-1 and COX-2
Lipoxygenase produces leukotrienes, produced by collections of cells and not endocrine organs
COX-1 Constitutive (produced under all physiological conditions), made in kidney, stomach, and platelets. Homeostatic functions: GI tract, renal tract, platelet function, macrophage differentiation
COX-2 Induced, causes inflammation
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS) Drugs like aspirin and ibuprofen. Inhibit cyclooxygenase activity of PGH2 synthase (COX enzymes). Inhibit formation of prostaglandins involved in fever, pain, and inflammation. Inhibit blood clotting by blocking thromboxane formation in blood platelets
Leukotrienes involved in asthmatic and allergic reactions and act to sustain inflammatory reactions. Work on smooth muscle in respiratory system.
Anti-asthma medications inhibit lipoxygenase and leukutriene-receptor interactions. Smooth muscle in the respiratory system
Amino acid and peptide hormones functional for <1 hour. usually not complexed with a transport protein. quickly degraded/no reserve. They and their derivatives are hydrophilic, lipophobic, and polar
Thyroid and steroid hormones Remain in circulation much longer. 99% become attached to special transport proteins and thus bloodstream contains substantial reserve of bound hormones. Hydrophobic, lipophilic, and nonpolar, only soluble in blood because of carrier protein
Membrane Permeability dependent on lipids, not freely permeable to hydrophilic/lipophobic molecules (like amino acid hormones), freely permeable to hydrophobic/lipophilic molecules (thyroid hormones)
Body Temperature reflex Body temp down, detected by thyroid, increase thyroid hormones, hormones increase metabolism, and heat increases
Two Receptor Locations on Target Cells Plasma Membrane and cytoplasm or nucleus
Plasma Membrane Receptor catecholamines/peptide hormones: Hormone acts as a first messenger, relaying message to intercellular intermediary. Second messenger affects enzyme activity and changes cellular metabolic reactions
Cytoplasm or Nucleus Receptor lipid-soluble hormones, diffuse through plasma membrane. Exert their effect by changing gene expression.
Steroids as Cytoplasm or Nucleus Receptor Affect DNA transcription rate and protein synthesis. Change synthesis of enzyme and structural proteins affecting cell's metabolic activity and structure
Thyroid hormones as Cytoplasm or Nucleus Receptor bind to receptors in nucleus, affecting cell's metabolic activity and structure. Bind to receptors on mitochondria, affecting energy production
Consequences of hormone stimulation are determined by: amount of hormone present "amplitude coding", and number & kind of receptor present "sensitivity or responsiveness"
Endocrine Reflexes functional counterparts of neural reflexes, most cases as negative feedback loops
Target Tissue Sensitivity determined by the number of receptors present
Down-Regulation decrease the number of receptors to a molecule on the membrane
Up-Regulation increase the number of receptors to a molecule on the membrane
Interaction the action of a hormone depending on another
Types of Interactions 1) Synergistic - multiple stimuli, more than additive. 2) Permissive - need second hormone to get full expression. 3) Antagonistic - glucagon opposes insulin
Stimuli for Endocrine Reflexes Humoral stimuli - changes in composition in the interstitial fluid. Hormonal stimuli - changes in levels of a particular hormone in the interstitial fluid (thyroid hormone). Neural stimuli - the arrival of neurotransmitters at a neuroglandular junction.
Pineal Gland Location posterior margin of the diencephalon, pouch in the third ventricle.
Pineal Gland Development develops from out-pocketing of the diencephalon during neural development, loses most neural connections to the brain, but innervated by sympathetic and, to a lesser degree, parasympathetic fibers.
Pinealocyte functional/adult cell of the pineal. "neuron-like" cells that "synapse" on pineal blood vessels
Pinealocyte hormone example pinealocyte produce melatonin from amino acid tryptophan. Melatonin synthesis shows a circadian rhythm. Melatonin is the only one that comes from tryptophan.
Melatonin Synthesis Darkness stimulates sympathetic output and consequently melatonin synthesis is highest at this time. Light inhibits the sympathetic system, melatonin synthesis declines.
Melatonin Roles Has significant antioxidant activity and enhances many aspects of immune function, biological clocks and may have roles in jet lag, SAD, and sexual behavior
Pituitary (hypophysis) Location located on the inferior surface of the hypothalamus, to which it is anatomically and functionally connected. Lies in sella turcica in sphenoid bone
Anterior Lobe (Adenohypophysis) Divided into the pars tuberalis, pars intermedia, pars distalis. Consists of Tropic Cells
Posterior Lobe (Neurohypophysis) Divided into infundibulum and pars nervosa. Consists of axons of hypothalamic neurons and glial cells
Infundibulum Role physically and functionally connects the pituitary to the hypothalamus
Pituitary Development From roof of the mouth (anterior lobe) and the brain (posterior lobe and infundibulum)
Rathke's Pouch appearance varies considerably. The pouch/space between the pituitary lobes leftover from anterior pituitary in development
Posterior Pituitary Hormone Synthesis Made in hypothalamic nuclei and released from the posterior lobe. They are neurohormones. Posterior lobe does not make anything
Hypothalamic-Hypophyseal Tract 1) hormone is made and packaged in cell body of neuron. 2) Vesicles are transported down the cell. 3) Vesicles containing hormones are stored in posterior pituitary. 4) Hormones are released into blood
ADH/Vasopressin Peptide Hormone. Involved in blood volume and pressure regulation. Kidney is target.
Oxytocin exerts primary effects during parturition and lactation.
Lactation When a baby suckles at the breast, the sensory stimulus goes to hypothalamus and causes pituitary to produce more milk. The target tissues are not endocrine in nature
Tropic Hormones Some of, but not all, hormones have other endocrine organs as their target tissues.
WBC Stains Acidophils, basophils, chromophobes stain differently because based on the hormonal content of the cells
6 Major Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary 1) Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). 2) Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). 3) Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) 4) Luteinizing hormone (LH) 5) Prolactin (PR) 6) Growth Hormone (GH)
Hypothalamic-Hypophyseal Portal System functionally links the hypothalamus and the anterior love. Establishes a vascular linkage between the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary
Portal System any exception to the "normal" sequence of artery-capillary-vein
Three Causes of Hyper- or Hyposecretion of a Hormone Tertiary - the hypothalamus, Secondary - the anterior pituitary, Primary - the final endocrine organ
Cushing's Syndrome Three possibilities of Cushing’s (too much cortisol) Tertiary – hypothalamus CRH keeps going up, so then ACTH and Cortisol are high Secondary – anterior pituitary is still producing ACTH Primary – due to adrenal gland not responding to decreased ACTH
Thyroid Gland lies in cervical region anterior to the laryngeal cartilages and the trachea. Largest of endocrine glands
Thyroid Development Develops as a pouch in the area of the tongue and descends into its final location
Thyroid Follicles structural unit, each follicle is a sphere of follicular cells
Follicular Cells synthesize the precursor to thyroid hormones, thyroglobulin, stored in the follicle as a gelatinous colloid by taking up amino acids and iodine
T4 and T3 Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine, derived from thyroglobulin and made of tyrosine and iodine. Named for number of iodine atoms in them. Stimulate growth processes like osteogenesis
Thyroid Binding Globulin transports T3 in blood after T3 is made from T4
Juvenile Hypothyroidism results from stunted growth of the skeletal system
Thyroid Receptors located in nucleus and cytoplasm
Endemic Goiter (iodine deficient hypothyroidism) Very large nodules developing in the neck in the thyroid. The lack of Iodine in the diet is driving the thyroid into overdrive. Without Iodine there’s no T3 or T4 so no negative feedback to stop making TSH.
Parafollicular Cells in thyroid, located between follicles. Are neural crest cells that invade developing thyroid. Produce calcitonin
Calcitonin lowers calcium levels via a humoral reflex arc. Target tissues are bones and kidneys, it is an antagonist to PTH
Parathyroids located on posterior surface of thyroid, composed of principle (chief) cells, produce PTH, in response to low levels of Ca++.
Parathyroid Hormone raises concentrations of calcium via a humoral endocrine reflex, target Bone, GI tract, and kidneys
Adrenal Gland rostral pole of the kidney, consists of an outer cortex and inner medulla. Targeted by ACTH
Adrenal Cortex three layers, each with different hormones- zona reticularis, zona fasciculata, zona glomerulosa
Zona Glomerulosa appears independent of anterior pituitary/hypothalamus. ACTH has no effect on it, produces aldosterone (steroid)
Aldosterone stimuli that indicate a decrease in blood pressure stimulate it. salt retaining hormone. regulates how much sodium you lose in urine/how much kept in blood. Targets kidney
How does Aldosterone increase Na+ reabsorption? increases the number of transporters
Zona Fasciculata target of ACTH. produces glucocorticoids, like cortisol
Gluconeogenesis formation of glucose from other substances e.g. proteins and fats
Cortisol glucocorticoid, promotes gluconeogenesis, profound/conflicting effect on immune system, long term effect of stress/short term fight or flight
Zona Reticularis largely independent of the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary, produce adrenal androgens, gonadocorticoids: primary androgen product DHEA
Adrenal Androgens male sex hormones, but males and females both have them
DHEA dehydroepiandrosterone, intermediate in biosynthesis of testosterone and estrogen, calls for secondary sex characteristics in males
Androgens in Adult Males insignifficant
Androgens in Adult Females supports the maintenance of muscle mass and erythropoiesis, implication in the female libido
Adrenal Medulla controlled by sympathetic div. of ANS. has Chromaffin cells, which produce neurohormone epinephrine, stimulated by preganglionic nerves
Human Growth Hormone (hGH) direct effects are anabolic, releasing energy and stimulating growth. indirect effect of mediating somatomedin hormones from liver
IGF-1 somatomedin, insulin-like growth factor. Has a strong effect on cartilage and bone and skeletal muscle. Effect normally associated with osteogenesis. stimulate cartilage, bone, and muscle growth
LH (Leutenizing Hormone) produced by a trophic cell in anterior pituitary, target gonads, stimulates testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone
FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) produced by trophic cell in anterior pituitary, targets gonads, stimulates gamete production
Seminiferous Tubules (Males) target tissue of LH and FSH, where male gametes and testosterone are produced
Nurse/Sertoli Cells (Males) where LSH targets for meiotic division for haploid sperm, spermatogenesis
Interstitial/Leydig Cells (Males) LH binds to them to produce testosterone
(Females) LH and FSH regulates: ovarian and uterine cycles, which are cyclical productions
Corpus Luteum source of estrogen and progesterone during second half of menstrual cycle
FSH on Ovary binds to follicle and causes ovum to mature
LH on Ovary binds to corpus luteum to secrete estrogen and progesterone
Pancreas both exocrine and endocrine function, most is exocrine for digestive secretions into the duodenum, islets are endocrine
Pancreatic Islets (of Langerhans) endocrine portion of pancreas. alpha cells produce glucagon, beta cells produce insulin
Glucagon produced by pancreatic alpha cells, targets liver and adipose, mobilizes lipid reserves, promotes glucose synthesis and glycogen breakdown in liver, elevates blood glucose
Insulin produced by pancreatic beta cells, facilitates uptake of glucose by target cells, stimulates formation and storage of lipids and glycogen, reduce blood glucose by increasing number of glucose transporters
Pancreatic Alpha Cells produce glucagon
Pancreatic Beta Cells produce insulin
Created by: connorquinby



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