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Jewish- Crusades

Why was the church upset? Because they heard that the Muslims had control of Christian holy places in Jerusalem and that the Muslims were harassing Christians who came to those places
What year was the first crusade and who called it? The First Crusade was in 1095 and was called by Pope Urban II
What encouraged the Christians to conquer Jerusalem? The Reconquista in Spain
The Christians wanted to make everybody... Christian
What did the Pope give to those who are willing to fight? Indulgences
What are indulgences? Good deeds of past Saints and martyrs that belonged to the church. The church had the right to buy and sell them to whoever they wanted
What were economic reasons for the First Crusade? There had been a poor harvest in the last fall in NW Europe- France and Germany and they also wanted to make more money off of The Crusade
What were the political reasons for the First Crusade? There was often tension between the pope and the king and who got power. There was also numerous fights between different tribes and princes. The hope of the Crusade was to unite everybody as a Christian people
People were born in to different... Statuses
What was the reason for the Crusades for the knights? The knights were trained to fight and unfortunately when they got bored they decided to kill random people. The Hope was that the Crusade would give the knights something to fight for
What was the Crusade Army made up of (beginning and end)? In the beginning the Crusade Army was made up of trained Fighters, eventually more people started joining
What did the Crusaders wear on their clothing? Crosses
What does Crusader mean in Latin? Cross
When did the first crusade start? Where did it start forming? In 1096. It started forming in France, Italy, and Germany.
How many men did the Crusades start off with? 100,000
Where does the first violence occur to the Jews? What do the Jews do about it? In France. To stay in the Crusaders good graces, the Jews of France gave the Crusaders money, food, and supplies
What happened when the Crusaders reached Germany? They did not want to wait until they got to Jerusalem to start killing, and promptly started killing there
What are infidels? People who don't believe in your specific religion
What happened in May of 1096? Over the course of four weeks, the Crusaders has struck four different Jewish communities: Mainz, worms, speyers, and cologne
What were the options that the Crusaders gave to infidels? Which option did Jews most often choose? Convert or death. Jews most often chose to die instead of convert
How many deaths were there in Germany during 1096? 3,000-10,000 deaths
Some churchmen and nobles tried to ______ Jews and most of them were ___________. save and successful
When did the Crusaders leave from France to fight in Jerusalem? Who was this led by? August of 1096. It was led by Godfrey of Boulogne and his brother Baldwin.
What is the legend about Godfrey of Boulogne? Godfrey went to Rashi ask if he is be successful. Rashi say yes but only for a short while when Godfrey will come back with one less horse/horseman. Godfrey mad and says if Rashi is wrong he will kill all the Jews in France. It happens like Rashi says.
What did the Crusaders succeed in conquering during the First Crusade? The conquer large section of the Middle East
When do the Crusaders reach Jerusalem? What happened? In 1099. The Crusaders gathered all the Jews of Jerusalem into a synagogue and burn them. Between 50-300 Jews were killed. Some Jews didn't go to the synagogue an climbed on the Al Aqsa Mosque. They were also killed.
Did the Christians actually care about the land they conquered? What resulted from this? No, as a result they often lost the land they had just conquered.
What do Jews have as a current commemoration of the Crusades? Av Harachamim is a tefila that Ashkenazim say on certain Shabbatot after Torah reading. It is about those who have died Al Kiddush Hashem.
Which tefila was written during the Crusades? When is it said? Kinot are read on Tisha Be'av
What precedent set did the Crusaders make for future Jew haters? Of organized, popular, anti-Jewish uprisings
What type of antisemitism did the Crusaders feel towards the Jews? Religious
What were the Crusaders now spreading? Anti-Jewish teachings
When, where, and who: did the Christian Kingdom fall? In 1145, the Christian kingdom in Asia Minor fell into Muslim control
When was the Second Crusade? Who announced it (I think this q might be ec)? In late 1145, Pope Eugenius the Third announced the Second Crusade
What was the purpose of the Second Crusade? how were they planning to achieve that? The purpose of the Second Crusade was to protect what they had wanted during the First Crusade by reconquering the last territory and encouraging people to move to those places
In what year did the did the second Crusades start? Where? 1146 in France and Germany
What did the Crusaders do to already destroyed towns? They redestroyed them
Who was Rudolf and what did he tell the Crusaders? Rudolph was a bad monk who told the Christians they have an obligation to kill the Jews in France before going to Palestine
Who was Saint Bernard and what did he try to do? Saint Bernard, otherwise known as Bernard of clairvoux, was the official preacher of the Crusaders. St Bernard tried to stop the Crusaders from killing Jews because he wanted to prove the Jews wrong when Jesus came back
What were the results of Saint Bernards efforts? Less people died during the Second Crusade than the First Crusade
In the end, were the Crusaders successful in capturing Jerusalem during the Second Crusade? No, the Muslims reconquered Jerusalem
What was the name of the Muslim that reconquered Jerusalem after the Second Crusade? The Muslim Army was led by Saladin, he was a leader of the Ottoman Empire.
What does Saladin do once he controls Jerusalem? He makes a royal edict that the Jews can live in Jerusalem. Very few Jews actually lived there however.
Did the Christians losing the Second Crusade make it better or worse for the jews? There was lots of anti-Semitism due to the fact that the church lost the Second Crusade and religious fervor
What was the purpose for the Third Crusade? That they lost the Second Crusade
Who led the Third Crusade? King Richard of England or Richard the lionhearted
When did the Third Crusade take place? 1189-1190
The Third Crusade greatly affected the Jews of England. How did the Jews get to England? Jews came to England in 1066 when William the Conqueror came from a northern France to England
Why were the Jews in England? They were there for finance purposes and wear under Royal control
Jews who lived in England, where did they live mostly? London
What were most Jews of England job? They were money lenders to royalty and Nobles, because of this they had to pay large taxes and fines
When does the first progrom happen? In 1189, a crowd attacks Jews at the coronation of Richard the lionhearted and Westminster Abbey. This crowd starts a progrom in London
What is a pogrom? An organized attack against Jews that the government doesn't do anything about
What happened in York, London? 150 Jews barricaded themselves into Clifford's Tower. The mob comes to them, but at first too they are able to resist them. On the Shabbat before Pesach they realize they can't resist anymore. A rabbi tells them it is permissible to commit suicide
Were there any Jews who did not commit suicide and Clifford's Tower? What happened to them? There were seven Jews who decided not to kill themselves but ended up being massacred
What did the mobs of York do after the Jews had killed themselves? They took the documents that showed that they owed money to the Jews and burned them
What has been done in commemoration of the Jews killed in Clifford's Tower? On Clifford's Tower there is now a plaque that commemorates the Jews
What have they recently found from the Norwich progroms? 17 skeletons
What were the results of the Third Crusade? The result of the Third Crusade was that the Christians had control of most of the coast of Palestine, but not Jerusalem
When was The Fourth Crusade? In 1203
What do the Christians take and Destroy during The Fourth Crusade? What was special about the place? Constantinople or Istanbul. It was the Christian Greek Orthodox capital
Explain the beginning of Christianity and some of its many breakoffs: Christianity started with two sides colon Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox. All breakups come from the Roman Catholic side. From the Roman Catholics or Protestants and Catholics
How did the Christian Greek Orthodox feel after the Roman Catholics took their capital? Hate
When was the Children's Crusade and what happened? It was in 1210. During the Children's Crusade, young children marched across Europe to Crusade, however most sure it were sold into slavery
When was the fifth Crusade? What happened. 1216. The Crusaders briefly had control of Jerusalem
When did the Crusaders lose Jerusalem after getting it during the fifth Crusade? They lost it to the Muslims in 1244
Who led the Ninth Crusade? Who did he being with him? King Louis the Ninth of France brought 300 Jewish scholars
What do the Jews do and where? They made a Jewish community and yeshiva in Acre, Israel
How many times did Louis try to capture Jerusalem? What happened? Twice, both times he failed, however the second time he died
When did the last Crusader fortress fall? 1302
Created by: ebab