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SA Anatomy

Introduction to Nervous System

Define Nervous System It regulates the body reactions to environmental changes
List the Components of the CNS Brain (encephalon) Spinal Cord (Medulla Spinalis)
List the components of the PNS Cranial Nerves Spinal Nerves
What is another name for Brain? Encephalon
What is another name for Spinal Cord? Medulla Spinalis
There are significant differences in the NS between species. The _________ is more complex in lower animals. Rhinencephalon
In humans, the __________ __________ is anatomically different and shows the greatest functional elaboration. Cerebral Cortex.
The two types of cell types in the NS are: Neurons Neuroglia
What is the functioning unit of the NS? Neuron
Which cell type is the supporting cell in the NS? Neuroglia
What are the 2 types of Neurons? Presynaptic Postsynaptic
Name the types of Synapses (3) Axosomatic Axodendritic Axoaxonic
Where are synapses located in the CNS and Peripheral Nervous System? CNS - within the grey matter Peripheral - ganglia
What are the functions of Satellite Cells? Surround the neuron cell bodies in the ganglia Regulate Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, nutrients, and neurotransmitter levels around the neurons in ganglia.
What are the functions of Schwann Cells? Surround all axons in Peripheral NS. They are responsible for myelination of peripheral axons. Participate in repair process after injury.
What are the functions of Oligodendrocytes and where are they found? Myelinate CNS axons and provide structural framework.
What is the function of the Astrocyte? Maintain the blood brain barrier Absorb and recycle Neurotransmitters
What is the function of the Ependymal Cell? Line ventricles in the brain Line the central canal in the Spinal Cavity Assist in producing and monitoring of Cerebrospinal fluid.
What is the function of Microglia? Removes cell debris, wastes, and pathogens by phagocytosis.
Define "tracts" or fascicles A collection of axons with common origin and destination
Define "columns" or funiculi Anatomically distinct collection of tracts.
Define Reflex An immediate, involuntary motor response to a stimulus for maintenance of homeostasis
What are the steps of the Reflex Arc? Activation of Receptor Activation of Sensory Neuron Information Processing Activation of Motor Neuron Response of Effector
In monosynaptic transmissions, the Sensory neuron sends a signal to the ______ ______ Sensory Neuron --> Motor Neuron
In polysynaptic transmissions, the Sensory neuron sends a signal to the _________ and then to the ______ _______ Sensory Neuron --> Interneuron --> Motor Neuron
What is the best known reflex? Patellar (Stretch) Reflex
GSA (General Somatic Afferent) is distributed by _____ Nerves and ______ _____ ___ Distributed by Spinal Nerves and Cranial Nerve 5
What are the 3 types of Receptors for GSA? Exteroceptors Proprioceptors Viscera
Which system is known as the "Pain touch temperature" system? GSA
SSA has receptors in what 2 places? Retina Inner Ear
Define Hypalgesia Poor response to pain
SSA is distributed via what 2 Cranial Nerves? Distributed by Spinal Nerves and Cranial Nerve 2 and 8
GVA is distributed by which 3 Cranial Nerves? Cranial Nerves 7, 9 , 10
GVA also includes what 2 nerves of the ANS? Vagus - PNS Splanchnic - SNS
Which would experience "visceral pain"? GVA, GVE, GSA, GSE GVA experiences this.
SVA is distrubed by which 4 Cranial Nerves? CN 1, 7, 9, 10 CN 1 is smell CN 7, 9, 10 are taste
The Efferent portion of the PNS is referred to as ___ ____ ____. Lower Motor NeuronsS
What does Macrosmatic mean? Sensitive Sense of smell.
GSE is distributed by Cranial Nerves? (4) Cranial Nerves 3, 4, 6, 12
GVE is distrubted by the ANS. What part does SNS distribute to? Which does PNS distribute to? SNS - Sympathetic Trunk. PNS - CN 3, 7, 9, 10
GVE supplies which 3 things? Supplies smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glandular epithelium.
SVE is distributed by which CN? (5) Distributed by CN 5, 7, 9, 10, 11
The SVE supplies what things? Muscles of Mastication, Facial muscles, palate, pharynx, larynx, esophagus and Cervical Muscles.
Created by: drb8f8



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