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AnP Ch 3 Part D

Chapter 3 Part D

Interphase Majority of time cell is in this. Cell grows and carries on its usual activities. Includes DNA replication.
Cell Division (mitotic Phase) Cell divides into 2 (cell makes an exact copy in body)
Subphases G1, S and G2. G1 growth, S DNA replication, G2 rep for division.
DNA Replication Prior to division the cell makes a copy of DNA. Double stranded DNA helices unwind and unzip.
DNA Polymerase Attaches to primer and begins adding nucleotides to form new strands.
Semiconservative Replication Each new double stranded DNA is composed of one old strand and one new strand.
M (Mitotic) Phase Cell cycle is phase in which division occurs, Consist of 2 distinct events Mitosis and Cytokinesis.
M Phase is the division of nucleus, in which the duplicated DNA is distributed to new daughter cells.
Early Prophase Chromatin condenses, forming visible chromosomes.
Centrosome its duplicated begin synthesizing microtubules that push each centrosome to opposite poles of cell.
Late Prophase Nuclear envelope breaks up.
Metaphase Centromeres of chromosomes are precisely aligned at cells equator.
Metaphase Plate The imaginary plane midway between poles
Anaphase Shortest of all phases. Chromosomes are pulled toward their respective poles by motor proteins of kinetochores.
Telophase Begins when chromosome movement stops. Each set uncoils to form chromatin. Nucleoli reappear and Spindle disappears.
Cytokinesis Begins late anaphase and continues through mitosis. 2 daughter cells pinch apart.
Protein Synthesis DNA is master blueprint that holds the code for protein synthesis.
Gene A segment of DNA that holds the code for onw polypeptide.
RNA is the go between molecule that links DNA to proteins. formed in nucleus. Uracil is in place of Thymine.
Messenger RNA Process is referred to as transcription.
Ribosomal RNA Structural component of ribosomes, the organelle where protein synthesis occurs.
Transfer RNA Crrier of amino acids. Have a triplet code called anticodon.
Transcription DNA information coded in mRNA
Initiation RNA polymerase seperates DNA strands
Elongation RNA polymerase adds complementary nucleotides to growing mRNA matching sequence of based on DNA template strand.
Termination Transcription stops when RNA polymerase reaches special termination signal code.
Translation Each 3 based sequence on DNA is represented by a complamentary 3 based sequence on mRNA called codon.
Processing of mRNA Introns are removed by special proteins called spliceosomes, leaving only exon coding regions.
Role of tRNA binds a specific amino acid at one end, once amino acid is located onto tRNA, Molecule is now called an aminoacyl tRNA.
Anticodon at other end is triplet code that determines which amino acid will be bound at stem.
DNA to Proteins Complementary base paring directs transfer of genetic information in DNA into amino acid sequence of protein.
Autophagy (self eating) is the process of disposing of nonfunctional organelles.
Apoptosis also known as programmed cell death causes certain cells. to neatly self destruct.
Hyperplasia increases number of cell numbers
Atrophy is decrease in size that results from loss of stimulation or use
Hypertrophy is a increases in size.
Telomeres Are strings of nucleotides that protect ends of chromosomes. Like caps on shoestrings.
Created by: Jaytee07