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Chapter 12

Respiratory System

TermDefinition
adenoid hypertrophy Increased development
adenoidectomy Removal of the adenoids
adenoids Small masses of lymphatic tissue in the throat, close to the nasal (nose) passageway.
alveolar Pertaining to the alveolus
alveolus (plural: alveoli) An individualized section of an air sac in the lung.
anosmia Loss of the sense of smell.
anthracosis Abnormal condition of coal dust in the lungs; black lung disease.
apex of the lung Uppermost portion of the lung.
apical Pertaining to the tip of an organ.
apnea Without breathing.
asbestosis Abnormal condition of asbestos fiber particles in the lungs.
asphyxia Deficient oxygen and increased carbon dioxide in the bloodstream.
asthma Chronic inflammation disorder characterized by airway obstruction and caused by bronchial edema, bronchoconstriction, and increased mucus production.
atelectasis Collapsed lung.
auscultation Listening for sounds in the chest and abdomen using a stethoscope.
bacilli Rod-shaped bacteria that are the cause of tuberculosis.
base of the lung The lower portion of the lung.
bronchial alveolar lavage Irrigation or washing of a bronchus by injecting fluid through a bronchoscope and then removing it to analyze the content.
bronchiectasis Abnormal widening bronchial tubes.
bronchioles Small bronchial tubes.
bronchiolitis Inflammation of the bronchiole.
bronchodilator Agent that dilates (widens) blood vessels and relieves bronchospasm.
bronchoscopy Visual examination of the bronchial tubes using an endoscope or bronchoscope.
bronchospasm Involuntary muscular contractions in bronchial tubes leading to the narrowing of the bronchi.
bronchus Branch of the trachea that leads toward the air sacs of the lung.
carbon dioxide Gas produced in tissue cells when oxygen and food combine.
chest tomograms Series of x-ray images that reveal the chest in-depth (layers or sections of the lung).
chronic bronchitis Inflammation of the bronchi persisting over a long period of time.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Lung and bronchial tube conditions that block and damage airways and persist over a long period of time. Examples are chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
cilia Thin hairs that line the nasal passageway and tubes of the respiratory tract.
computed tomography of the chest Computer generated x-ray images showing thoracic structures in cross-section.
cor pulmonale Enlargement of the right side of the heart due to lung disease.
croup Acute viral infection
cyanosis Abnormal condition of bluish coloration of the skin.
cystic fibrosis Inherited disorder of exocrine glands resulting in mucous secretions that do drain normally.
diaphragm Muscle that separates the chest and abdomen; aids breathing.
diphtheria Acute infection of the throat caused by diphtheria bacteria; characterized by formation of a thick membrane that obstructs the throat and breathing.
dysphonia Abnormal voice or sound produced by speaking.
dyspnea Difficult breathing.
emphysema Hyperinflation of air sacs with destruction of alveolar walls.
empyema Pus in the pleural space (cavity) surrounding the lung.
endotracheal intubation Tube is place through the mouth and throat into the trachea to establish an airway.
epiglottis Thin piece of cartilage that covers the entrance to the voice box and windpipe when a person is swallowing.
epiglottitis Inflammation of the epiglottis.
epistaxis Nosebleed.
expectoration Coughing up mucus or sputum from the throat and respiratory tract.
expiration Process of breathing out or exhalation.
exudate Fluid, cells, or other substances that slowly leave cells or capillaries through pores or breaks in cell membranes.
glottis Slit-like opening between the vocal folds of the larynx.
hemoptysis Spitting up blood form the respiratory tract.
hemothorax Blood in the chest (pleural cavity) surrounding the lungs.
hilar Pertaining to the hilum.
hilum of the lung Midline region where the bronchi, blood vessels, and nerves enter and exit the lungs.
hydrothorax Water or fluid that accumulates in the pleural space surrounding the lungs.
hypercapnia Increased levels of carbon dioxide in the bloodstream.
hypernea Increase in breathing rate.
hypoxia Deficiency of oxygen in tissues.
infiltrate fluid-filled area within the lungs as seen on a chest x-ray or CT scan.
inspiration Act of breathing in or inhalation.
laryngeal Pertaining to the larynx or voice box.
laryngitis Inflammation of the larynx or voice box.
laryngoscopy Endoscopic visual examination of the larynx.
laryngospasm Involuntary contraction of muscles surrounding the voice box.
larynx Voice box.
lobectomy Removal of a lobe or section of an organ, such as the lung.
lung biopsy Surgical removal of lung tissue followed by microscopic examination of cells.
lung cancer Malignant tumor arising from the lungs and bronchial tubes.
magnetic resonance imaging of the chest Magnetic waves are used to produce images of the chest in all three planes of the body.
mediastinoscopy Endoscopic visual examination of the mediastinum.
mediastinum Part of the thoracic (chest) cavity between the lungs.
mesothelioma Rare malignant tumor arising in the pleura and associated with asbestos exposure.
nasogastric intubation Placement of a tube through the nose into the stomach.
obstructive lung disease Narrowed airways result in resistance to airflow during breathing. Examples are asthma, bronchiectasis, COPD, and cystic fibrosis.
orthopnea Breathing is only comfortable when a patient is in an upright position.
oxygen Gas inhaled and entering the bloodstream through the lungs; in makes up 21 percent of the air.
palatine tonsil One of a pair of almond-shaped masses of lymphatic tissue at the back of the mouth (oral pharynx).
palliative Relieving symptoms, but not curative.
paranasal sinus One of a pair of air cavities in the bones near the nose.
parietal pleura Outer layer of the pleura lying closest to the chest wall.
paroxysmal Pertaining to sudden occurrence.
percussion Tapping on the surface to determine the underlying structure.
pertussis Whooping cough; bacterial infection of the throat, larynx, and trachea.
pharyngeal Pertaining to the throat or pharynx.
pharynx Throat.
phrenic nerve Carries impulses to the diaphragm from the brain.
pleura Double-folded membrane surrounding each lung.
pleural cavity Space between the pleura surrounding each lung.
pleural effusion Collection of fluid in the pleural cavity.
pleural rub Scratchy sound produced by inflamed or irritated pleural surfaces rubbing against each other.
pleurisy Inflammation of the pleura; pleuritis.
pleurodynia Pain associated with the pleura.
pneumoconiosis Abnormal condition of dust in the lungs.
pneumonectomy Removal of a lung.
pneumonia Acute inflammation and infection of the alveoli, which fill with pus, and products of inflammation.
pneumothorax Collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity between the pleura and surrounding the lungs.
positron emission tomography of the lung Radioactive substance is injected into a patient and the images reveal the metabolic activity in the lung for diagnosis of malignant tumors.
pulmonary Pertaining to the lungs.
pulmonary abscess Collection of pus in the lungs.
pulmonary edema Collection of fluid in the air sacs and bronchioles of the lung.
pulmonary embolism Clot or material from a distant vein that blocks a blood vessel in the lung.
pulmonary fibrosis Formation of scar tissue in the connective tissue of the lung.
pulmonary function test Tests that measure the ventilation (breathing) mechanics of the lung.
pulmonary infarction Area of dead tissue in the lung.
pulmonary parenchyma Essential parts of the lungs responsible for respiration; bronchioles and alveoli.
purulent Pus-filled; forming or containing pus.
pyothorax Pus collection in the pleural cavity.
rales Abnormal, fine, crackling sounds heard on the auscultaion where there is fluid in the alveoli.
respiration Exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) at the lung capillaries (external respiration) and at the tissue capillaries (internal respiration).
restrictive lung disease A condition in which lung expansion is limited by diseases that affect the chest wall, pleura or lung tissue itself. Examples are pulmonary fibrosis, radiation damage, and pneumoconiosis.
rhinoplasty Surgical repair of the nose.
rhinorrhea Discharge of mucus from the nose.
rhonchi Loud, rumbling sounds heard of auscultation of bronchi that are obstructed by sputum.
sarcoidosis Chronic inflammatory disease of unknown cause in which small nodules or tubercles develop in lungs, lymph nodes, and other organs.
silicosis Silica glass dust collects in the lungs; a type of pneumoconiosis.
sinusitis Inflammation of paranasal sinuses.
spirometer An instrument to measure breathing.
sputum Material expelled from the chest by coughing or by clearing the throat phlegm.
sputum culture Sputum is collected and placed in a growth medium to analyze the type of microorganisms that may be present.
stridor Strained, high pitched noisy breathing associated with obstruction of the larynx or trachea.
tachypnea Excessively fast breathing.
thoracentesis Surgical puncture to remove fluid build up from the chest.
thoracic Pertaining to the chest.
thoracoscopy Visual examination of the chest using small incision and an endoscope.
thoracotomy Incision of the chest.
tonsilectomy Removal of the tonsils.
trachea Windpipe; tubes leading from the larynx (voice box) to the bronchial tubes.
tracheal stenosis Narrowing of the trachea.
tracheostomy New opening of the trachea to the outside of the body.
tracheotomy Incision into the trachea.
tube thoracostomy Chest tube is passed through an opening in the skin of the chest to continuously drain a pleural effusion.
tuberculliin test Determines past or present exposure to tuberculosis based on a positive skin test.
tuberculosis Infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Lungs are usually involved but other organs may be affected.
ventilation-perfusion scan Radioactive test of lung ventilation and blood perfusion throughout the lung capillaries (lung scan).
visceral pleura Innermost membrane of the pleura, lying closest to the lung tissue itself.
wheeze Continuous high-pitched whistling sound when air is forced through a narrow space during inspiration or expiration.
adenoid/o adenoids
alveol/o alveolus, air sac
bronch/o, bronchi/o bronchial tube, bronchus
bronchiol/o bronchiole, small bronchus
capn/o carbon dioxide
coni/o dust
cyan/o blue
epiglott/o epiglottis
laryng/o larynx, voice box
lob/o lobe of the lung
mediastin/o mediastinum
nas/o nose
orth/o straight, upright
ox/o oxygen
pector/o chest
pharyng/o pharynx, throat
phon/o voice
phren/o diaphragm
pleur/o pleura
pneum/o, pneumon/o air, lung
pulmon/o lung
rhin/o nose
sinus/o sinus, cavity
spir/o breathing
tel/o complete
thorac/o chest
tonsill/o tonisils
trache/o trachea, windpipe
-ema condition
-osmia smell
-pnea breathing
-ptysis spitting
-sphyxia pulse
-thorax pleural cavity, chest
Created by: jswitzer13