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Apologia Human body

Module 7

When you flex your forearm, which division of your PNS is being used? efferent
When you touch a hot stove, you pull your hand immediately away to avoid being seriously burned. Which system of the PNS is utilized first in this situation? afferent
A signal is traveling down the process of a neuron. It is traveling in the same direction as another signal in another process of that same neuron. is this signal traveling towards or away from the cell body? to the cell body
An axon has a myelin sheath produced by Schwann cells. PNS
In studying a rat's brain, a scientist notices that the microglia are very active. What does this tell you about the rat's brain? it probably has an infection
A group of axons bundled together is severed and does not heal. There are two possible reasons for this. Axons in the CNS are severed or not lined up well.
Suppose the membrane suddenly became very permeable to sodium ions. What would happen to the potential difference between the inside and outside of the axon? The potential difference would become less negative.
If the potassium channels in an axon's membrane are open, is the potential difference becoming more positive or less negative? More.
At a given instant in time, an axon has a high concentration of sodium ions inside the cell and a high concentration of potassium ions outside the cell. What will happen next? The sodium-potassium exchange pump to move the potassium back into the cell and move the sodium back out so that the neuron is ready for another action potential.
A perfectly healthy neuron does not respond to a stimulus. Based on what you know now, there are two possible reason for this. What are they? The stimulus is subthreshold. The neuron is in the absolute refractory period.
Suppose you are in a dimly-lit room and then suddenly someone shines a bright light in your eyes. What changes occur in the action potentials being sent from your eyes to your brain? The change is the frequency of action potentials.
When a doctor asks whether the pain you feel is sharp or dull, what can the answer tell the doctor about the nerves? myelinated or unmyelinated
As you read this question, cells in your eyes are sending information to your brain which your brain uses to form an image of the words that you read. This information is being sent along _______________ _________. afferent nerves
When you are digesting food, smooth muscles churn your stomach. This is being controlled by the ________ ________ of the PNS. efferent divison
What would be the most specific way to describe the nerves involved in digesting food? The parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system is being used.
bind CNS neurons together and insulate the axon oligodendrocytes
insulate PNS axons Schwann cells
engage in phagocytosis to fight infections micoglia
form the blood-brain barrier astrocytes
secrete cerebrospinal fluid non-ciliated ependymal cells
move cerebrospinal fluid around so that it stays homogeneous ciliated ependymal cells
Carries only sensory information from a receptor to the CNS sensory nerve
Carries signals only from the CNS to effector organs such as muscles motor nerve
Carries sensory information from a receptor to the CNS and from the CNS to effector organs/ most nerves in the body are these mixed nerves
An axon covered by an oligodendrocyte is part of the CNS
An axon covered by an oligodendrocyte will or will not regenerate if severed? will not
An axon is covered by several Schwann cells. If severed, is it guaranteed to heal? No
What does an axon need to heal besides Schwann cells? Aligned with the severed part in order for the Schwann cells to guide the axon to it
At one point in the axon, there is a high concentration of sodium ions outside of the cell and a high concentration of potasium ions inside the cell. Is the cell at rest? yes
A stimulus creates a change in the potential difference between the inside and outside of the cell, but no action potential is created. What is this called? submaximal stimulus
The step in creating an action potential where sodium gates open, and sodium ions rush into the cell according to the dictates of diffusion, making the potential difference become positive depolarization
The step where sodium gates close and potassium gates open. Potassium rushes out of the cell according to the dictates of diffusion, bringing the potential difference back to a negative value. repolarization
What keeps an action potential on an axon from stimulating another action potential which will travel back towards the cell body? absolute refractory period
Why do myelinated axons carry action potentials faster than unmyelinated axons? They allow saltatory transmission, where action potentials skip from one node of Ranvier to another.
Sharp pain comes quickly because it travels on __________ axons. myelinated
Dull ache comes a split second later because it travels on ____________ axons. unmyelinated
A signal that needs to travel a long, long way in the body, and that needs to have exactly the same properties at its destination as it did when it started should be sent along ________________. a very long axon
Twelve action potentials are traveling down an axon in a very short time period. They reach a synapse, and the postynaptic neuron sends only two action potentials down its axon. This is an _____________________________. excitatory synapse
A "circuit" where many inputs are digested down to just one limited output converging circuit
A "circuit" where one input creates many outputs diverging circuit
A "circuit" which prolongs the effect of a stimulation oscillating circuit
Nerves Bundles of axons and their sheaths which extend from the CNS
Ganglia Collections of neuron cell bodies which are outside of the CNS
Spinal nerves Nerves which originate from the spinal cord
Cranial nerves Nerves which originate from the brain
Afferent neurons Neurons which transmit action potentials from the sensory organs to the CNS
Efferent neurons Neurons which transmit action potentials from the CNS to the effector organs
Somatic motor nervous system The system that transmits action potentials from the CNS to the skeletal muscles
Autonomic nervous system The system that transmits action potentials from the CNS to the smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands
Sympathetic division The division of the ANS that generally prepares the body for physical activity
Parasympathetic division The division of the ANS that regulates resting and nutrition-related functions such as digestion, defecation, and urination
Association neuron A neuron that conducts action potentials from one neuron to another neuron within the CNS
Excitability The ability to create an action potential in response to a stimulus
Potential difference A measure of the charge difference across the cell membrane
Created by: q



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