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AnP Ch 3 Part A

Chapter 3 Part A

Cell therory Cell is the structural and functional unit of life. Cells undergo Differentiation.
Extracellular Materials Body Fluids such as Blood Plasma fluid of the blood.
Plasma Membrane Consist of membrane lipids that form a flexible lipid bi-layer.
Membrane Proteins Float through this fluid membrane resulting in constantly changing patterns.
Membrane Lipids Phosphate heads are polar and are hydrophillic (water loving) Fatty acid tails are non polar and are Hydrophobic (water fearing).
Membrane Proteins Allow cell communications with environment. Make up half the mass of plasma membrane. float freely.
Integral Proteins Most are trans-membrane proteins (span membrane) Have both regions, function as transport proteins, enzymes or receptors.
Peripheral Proteins Loosely attached to integral proteins. Function as enzymes.
Glycocalyx Consist of sugars sticking out of cell surface. Functions as specific biological markers for cell-to-cell recognition.
Cell Junctions Some are free like blood and sperm cells. Can be bound by Tight Junctions, Desmosomes and Gap Junctions
Tight Junctions Integral proteins on adjacent cells fuse to form an impermeable junction that encircles whole cell.
Desmosomes Linker proteins (cadherns) of neighboring cells interlock like the teeth of a zipper. Allow give between cells reducing the possibility of tearing under tension.
GapJunctions Trans-membrane proteins (connexons) form tunnels that allow small molecules to pass from cell to cell. Used to spread ions, sugars or other small molecules. allows electrical signals to pass.
Passive Processes No energy required
Active Processes Energy (ATP) requried
Passive Transport Requires no energy. 2 types of this are Diffusion and Filtration
Diffusion Simple Diffusion, Osmosis and Facilitated Diffusion. Concentration Gradient. Lipid soluble and non polar substances. Very small molecules and large molecules assisted by carriers.
Filtration Usually occurs across capillary walls.
Facilitated Diffusion Hydrophobic molecules. are transported passivley down their concentration gradient.
Carrier- Mediated Facilitated Diffusion Substance bind to protein carriers. carriers are trans-membrane integral proteins.
Channel- Mediated Facilitated Diffusion Channels with aqueous filled cored are formed by trans-membrane proteins. Leakage Channels are always open. grated Channels are controlled by chemical or electrical signals.
Osmosis Movement of water across a selectively permeable membreane
Osmolarity Measure of total concentration of solute particles.
Hydrostatic Pressre Pressure of water inside cell pushing on membrane
Osmotic Pressure Tendency of water to move into cell by osmosis
Tonicity Ability of a solution to change the shape or tone of cells by altering the cells internal water volume.
Isotonic Solution Has same osmolarity as inside the cell so volume remains unchanged.
Hypertonic Solution Has higher osmolarity than inside cell so water flows out of cell resulting in cell shrinking. shriveling of cell.
Hypotonic Solution Has lower osmolarity than inside cell so water flows into cell resulting in cell swelling. Can lead to bursting of cell.
Created by: Jaytee07