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AnP Ch 2 part B

Chapter 2 part B

Inorganic Compounds No carbon. Water, Salts and many acids and bases
Organic Compunds Contain Carbon, Carbs, Fats, Proteins and Nucleic Acids
Water Accounts for 60%-80% of the volume of living cells.
High Heat Capacity Lot of energy to change to gas. Prevents sudden changes in temp.
High heat of Vaporization evaporation requires large amounts of heat. Useful cooling mechanism.
Polar Solvent Properties dissolves and dissociates iconic substances. More reactive in solutions.
Reactivity Necessary part of hydrolysis and dehydration synthesis reactions.
Salts are iconic compounds that dissociate into separate ions in water.
Electrolytes All ions are this because they can conduct electrical currents in solution.
Acids Are proton donors: they release hydrogen ion.
Bases Are proton acceptors: they pick up Hydrogen ions in solution.
pH: Acid-base Concentration pH scale is measurement of concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution.
Acidic Solutions have high hydrogen but low pH.
Alkakine solutions have low hydrogen but high pH
Netralization acids and bases are mixed together
Buffers resist abrupt and large swings in pH.
Carbohydrates include sugars and starches. Contain C,H and O
Monosaccharides Simple sugars containing 3-7 carbon atoms.
Pentose Sugars Ribose and Deoxribose
Hexose Sugars Glucose (blood Sugar)
Disaccharides Double Sugars, to large to pass through cell membrane, Sucrose , Maltose and Lactose.
Polysaccharides Polymers to Monosaccharides, Starch and Glycogen. Not very soluble.
Lipids Triglycerides or neutral fats, Phospholipids, Steroids, Eicosanoids.
Triglycerides called fats when solid and oils when liquid. Energy function, Insulation and Protection.
Saturated fatty acids All carbons are linked via single covalent bonds. Solid at room temp. Animal fats and butter
Unsaturated fatty acids Liquid at room temp. One or more carbons are linked via double bonds. Trans fats ans Omega-3 fatty acids
Phospholipids Modified Triglycerides. Head is polar attracted to water and tails are non-polar are repelled by water. Make up cell membrane.
Steroids Most important one is Cholesterol. Vitamin D and hormones and bile salts. Consist of 4 interlocking ring structures.
Proteins Comprise 20-30% of cell mass. Structural and chemical enzymes. Polymers of amino acids monomers held together by peptide bonds. Held together by 20 types of amino acids
Protein Strucutre Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary.
Primary Linear sequence of amino acids
Secondary how primary amino acids interact with each other.
Alpha Helix coils resemble a spring
Beta pleated sheets resemble accordion ribbons
Tertiary How secondary structures interact
Quaternary How 2 or more different polypeptides interact with each other
Fibrous (structural) Proteins Strand like water insoluble and stable. Provide mechanical support ans tensile strength. EX: Keratin, Elastin and Collagen.
Globular (functional) Proteins Compact, spherical, water soluble and sensitive to environment changes. EX: Antibodies, Hormones and Enzymes.
Denaturation Globular proteins unfold and lose theie functional 3-D shape. Can be caused by decreased pH or increased temp. Irreversible.
Enzymes Globular proteins that act as biological catalysts. Lower the activation energy for chemical reaction.
Characteristics of Enzymes Most functional enzymes, referred ti as Holoenzymes, consist of 2 parts. Act on a very specific substrate. Names usually end in ASE.
Nucleic acids Composed of C,H,O,N and P. Are the largest molecules in the body.
Nucleic acid polymers are made up of monomers called Nucleotide
DNA Genetic blue print for the synthesis of all proteins. Double stranded Helical Molecule located in cell nucleus.
Purines A adeine, G guanine
Pyrimidines C cytosine, T thymine
Base paring rules A-T and C-G
RNA Single stranded linear molecule s active mostly outside nucleus. Contains ribose sugar. Thymine is replace with Uracil.
ATP Chemical energy released when released when glucose is broken down is captured in ATP.
Created by: Jaytee07



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